How to test for rabies virus?

Rabies is a dangerous infection, usually spread from animals that carry rabies viruses to humans through bites, scratches with saliva. Rabies virus testing is required as soon as possible to accurately diagnose whether or not the disease is infected, serving early treatment, avoiding endangering the patient's life.

1. Rabies Overview

Rabies is an acute encephalitis, myeloid disease caused by the rabies virus Rhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, strain of Lyssavirus. Dogs and bats are 2 types of animals that mainly cause rabies in humans through licking, bites,… Rabies can also be transmitted from person to person when exposed to saliva, wounds of rabies patients. According to World Health Organization statistics, every year more than 55,000 people die from rabies.

The incubation period of rabies usually lasts 1-3 months. However, the disease can also incubate for a short time (less than 1 week) or a long period (more than 1 year). The initial symptoms of rabies are similar to influenza with manifestations including dizziness, fever, headache,… Patients may also have symptoms such as unpleasant itching at the site of a bite. After that, the person is prone to brain dysfunction, confusion, anxiety, agitation, severe progress that leads to coma, insomnia, hallucinations,… The urgent stage of the disease usually lasts 2-10 days. When the disease has shown clinical symptoms, the patient will almost die.

For the prevention of rabies, immediately after a dog bite, the patient should treat the wound on the spot and go to a medical facility to be vaccinated. Rabies vaccination can cause a number of side effects such as swelling, redness, pain and itching at the injection site; rare nausea, dizziness.

Rabies testing in humans

Patients should treat the wound locally immediately after a dog bite

2. Rabies virus testing

In humans, the rabies virus cannot be detected at an early stage when symptoms of the disease have not yet appeared. In general, rabies viral testing in humans is less applicable and is mainly performed in patients who have shown clinical manifestations. Rabies viral testing includes tests on humans and animals. Specifically:

2.1 Rabies testing in humans

Commonly applied testing methods are:

  • Blood tests: Leukocycycy are often high, the rate of polycythemia increases;
  • Urine tests: Increased proteinuria and leukocycysis;
  • Encephainal fluid test: Results such as encephalitis, meningitis with mild increased pressure, mainly monocytitis;
  • Imaging: CT or MRI scan results in nons specific changes.

In addition, some diagnostic tests of the disease are less applicable but give the correct result: Perform a rabies virus test in the product (saliva, serum, cerebral fluid and nape skin biopsy,…) with a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) or isolating the rabies virus-finding product by cell culture (or culture on mice). Blood and cerebral fluid tests are aimed at checking if the body already has anti-rabies antibodies. Nape of the nape of the nape of the neck is aimed at finding the antigen of the rabies virus. Today, new techniques can detect the RNA of the rabies virus by PCR reaction or Real Time – PCR reaction.

Blood test

Gay rabies should be tested after being bitten by rabid dog

2.2 Rabies testing in animals

Mainly carried out in dogs. There is currently no accurate rabies test in living animals. Rabies viral testing is carried out only when the animal has died. To perform the test, it is necessary to take the brain of the animal and send it to the test site to determine if a person is at risk of exposure to rabies pathogens after being bitten by a dog or cat. Patients should go to reputable medical facilities for an accurate diagnosis of rabies.

Once the disease has arisen, rabies cannot be treated, the person will definitely die. Therefore, rabies viral testing plays an important role for people who have just been bitten by an animal, have a high risk of infection, help with effective preventive treatment, avoiding the disease from developing i.m.

Share99 International Hospital currently provides rabies vaccination services. Reasons to get vaccinated at Share99:

  • Clients are screened for pre-vaccination health, advised on vaccines, age-appropriate vaccination regimens, instructed on how to monitor and provide post-vaccination health care in accordance with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO);
  • Have a team of experienced doctors and nurses, apply effective pain relief measures when vaccinating;

Vaccination, vaccination, vaccination at vinmec

Patients can be vaccinated against rabies at Share99 Vaccination Center
  • 100% of customers are monitored for health after 30 minutes of injection and re-evaluated before leaving;
  • Having a professional emergency ekip, the post-vaccination room is fully equipped with modern medical equipment, timely handle the right regimen in case of anaphylactic shock, respiratory failure – discontinuation of post-vaccination re-vaccination;
  • The vaccination room is airy, there is a play area for children, helping customers feel comfortable and psychologically good before and after vaccination;
  • Vaccines are imported and preserved in modern cold storage systems with cold storage lines meeting international standards, ensuring quality;
  • For children, Share99's system will send a message reminding the vaccination schedule before the date of vaccination, and the child's vaccination information will be synchronized with the national vaccination information system.

To schedule an examination and vaccination at Share99 International Health Hub, you can contact HERE.

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About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


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