Liver flukes are a very common disease in many localities of our country. When there are signs of the disease, especially when living in areas with a high incidence of liver flukes in humans, patients should go to medical facilities specialized in parasites for testing for liver flukes.
1. Where do liver flukes give birth?
Human liver flukes include small liver flukes and large liver flukes. This is a very common disease in many provinces and cities in our country. According to statistics of the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, small liver flukes are distributed in at least 21 provinces and cities, some of which have high incidences such as Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen. Large liver flukes are distributed in at least 47 provinces and cities, of which the highest infection rates belong to some central and central highlands provinces such as Da Nang, Quang Nam, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Gia Lai.
Human flukes are not transmitted directly from the sick to the healer. People with small liver flukes often eat fish salad or other dishes from fish containing larvae cysts that have not been fully cooked. Meanwhile, people with large liver flukes when eating vegetables growing underwater such as watercress, cane, spinach, sprawling vegetables, lotus ,… contains follicles or by drinking water containing fluke larvae.
Where do liver flukes give birth after entering the body? After entering the stomach down to the duodenum, the larvae of the liver fluke will separate the shell itself, releasing itself. Fluke larvae penetrate the duodenal wall into the peritoneal cavity to the liver, they perforate the liver sack, penetrating into the liver mesenterosis. In addition to liver skin, liver flukes can move out of place to parasites in other areas such as the intestinal wall, stomach wall, abdominal wall, breast, joints,… After penetration into the liver meps, liver flukes can penetrate the bile edging and lay eggs. Eggs will follow the feces released into the environment, if the eggs fall into the water will develop into larvae, parasites in hosts such as snails, fish, aquatic plants,… and can continue to enter the human body. During the period of parasites in the human body, if not detected and treated in time, the liver fluke will cause many serious damage such as cirrhosis, damage to the bile estuary, bile blockage, can even cause bile erthal mestherous tissue cancer.
2. Human liver fluke tests
Human liver flukes often have symptoms such as gastrointestinal disorders, loss of appetite, nausea, thinness, anemia, pain in the liver area, edema, sometimes jaundice, erratic fever (high fever, malaria tremor or transient fever and then self-exhaustion, sometimes prolonged fever), signs of chronic inflammation of the bile duct , complications of bile tubular hemorrhage,…
In the case of the above symptoms, especially when there is a history of eating fish salad, drinking water, regularly eating raw aquatic vegetables or living in localities with high incidence, patients should go to medical facilities specialized in parasites to test for liver flukes. Common liver fluke tests are:
- Stool test for fluke eggs: this is a useful and specific test but the accuracy of this test depends on a lot of factors, especially the duration of the disease. If tested in the first 3-4 weeks after infection with large liver flukes, it is difficult to detect fluke eggs in feces. The period of egg disposal is very erratic, in fact, only the test finds eggs in feces after 3-4 months from the inelication of food containing larvae. Besides, because the person is the accidental host, it is not always infected, the fluke also develops completely and the eggs are eliminated as when infected on cattle. If the fluke is lost, there will never be eggs in the feces, unless the flukes are in many places in the body, both in the liver tissue and in the bile.
- Total blood biomedification and hematological tests: During the larval penetration, leukocycysis is always greater than 10,000/mm3, many cases of leukocycysis increase to 30,000/mm3 . In most cases, leukocystosis increases, accounting for more than 5% of the total leukocyst, in some cases leukocy white blood cells increase by more than 80% (under normal health conditions, leukocystosis accounts for only 1-3%).
- Duodenal drainage – bile through a soft endoscope for fluke eggs: the duodenal drainage after suction will be microscopic to find the liver fluke egg. When the results of clinical examinations, ultrasounds and ELISA tests are not unified, sucking duodenal – bile to find liver fluke eggs is a necessary test, for accurate results.
- Blood tests using immunosmmunity techniques (ELISA) to find liver fluke antibodies in the patient's serum. This is a widely used test, giving reliable diagnostic results, which helps not to miss the cases in need of treatment. Diagnostic serological tests give early results, right at the intrusive stage, before the formation of lesions on ultrasound.
In order to diagnose liver flukes in humans, in addition to liver fluke tests, the doctor may prescribe that the patient to present some imaging techniques that help to probe liver flukes such as general ultrasound of the hepatic region, chest X-ray, ctecting, resonance imaging,… to determine the degree of liver and bile damage. Sometimes by imaging techniques, adult liver flukes can be seen in the bile ducting, gallbladder or clamped in liver tissue.
Human liver flukes do not have a preventive vaccine but are treated with medications. When diagnosed with liver flukes, depending on the type of liver fluke, the patient will be treated according to the appropriate regimen. If treated early, the treatment is usually favorable, the person often responds to the drug and completely cures the disease. If the disease is detected and treated slowly, the liver fluke lesions that cause the patient's body will be more severe, the treatment is much more difficult and complicated.
3. Prevention of human liver flukes
For the prevention of liver flukes in humans, it is necessary to thoroughly carry out the eating of boiling ripe and drinking. Do not eat fish salads and dishes from fish that have not been fully cooked. Underwater vegetables such as sprawling vegetables, vegetables, watercress salads, spinach,… need to be cooked before eating. Limit the eating of these vegetables raw, because even if washed thoroughly, it is difficult to remove all the fluke follicles attached to the vegetables. Wash your hands often, especially before
In addition, it is necessary to maintain environmental hygiene to cut off the life cycle of liver flukes. Good management of human and animal feces, do not let feces fall into the water source, do not use fresh mand fertilizers to feed fish, fertilize vegetables.
Customers wishing to visit and treat small liver flukes at Share99 can directly go to Share99 Health System nationwide or contact to make an appointment online HERE.
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Nơi sinh sống
Hồ Chí Minh
Ho Chi Minh City
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