According to the World Health Organization, secondary infertility occurs in women who have ever given birth or have been pregnant but are then unable to give birth due to their inability to conceive or the inability to become pregnant.
1. What is second-born infertility?
There are two types of infertility that are primitive and second-noted. Original infertility is described as a woman who cannot become pregnant, usually after 1 year of trying to conceive or 6 months if the woman is 35 years of age or older. People with second-born infertility have difficulty conceiving after a successful pregnancy at least once before.
Just like the original infertility, second-born infertility can occur due to a problem at any given time during natural reproduction. Fertility can vary even after childbirth. The woman's husband or partner may also change over time. One or more problems can occur during spawning as follows:
- Ovulation (eggs are released)
- Fertilization between eggs and sperm
- Fertilized eggs move to the uterus
- Eggs have been successfully fertilized and nested in the uterus
Both women and men can contribute to infertility.
2. What causes second-born infertility?
Primitive and second-born infertility often shares the same cause. Some of the most common causes, often associated with second-party infertility include:
- Ovulation disorders
Most infertile women are caused by ovulation disorders. In clinical practice, 40% of women suffer from continuous non-ovulation infertility, and problems with ovulation can be caused by a number of conditions such as:
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
- Ovarian Ins failure (POI)
- Decrease in the number of eggs associated with aging
- Thyroid pathology or other end hormone disorders that affect hormone production
- Lifestyle factors, such as weight, nutrition and alcohol or drug abuse
One of the most common causes of female infertility is polycystic ovary syndrome. This pathology causes the ovaries or ammonia glands to produce too many hormones that inhibit the ovaries from releasing eggs. In addition, this pathology can also cause cysts to develop in the ovaries that also interfere with the ovulation process. Currently, doctors have effective treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome so it is possible to increase the likelihood of successful pregnancy by up to 70%.
- Problems with the uterus or ovulation ducts
Structural problems can affect a woman's ability to become pregnant. For example, if there is a blockage in the ovary, sperm and eggs can not meet. The uterus may also have structural or tissue defects that prevent fertilized eggs from nesting.
Here are some specific diseases that affect the ducts of the ovaries or uterus, including:
- Uterine fibroids or polyps
- Scarring of the uterus
- Abnormalities in the shape of the uterus, such as the one-horned uterus (unicornuate uterus)
In particular, endometriosis accounts for up to 10% of women with secondary infertility. Second-born infertility caused by endometriosis can occur after cesarean section or intometrial surgery, when the uterus cells may be mis-located.
- Scars caused by cesarean section
Cesarean section can leave scars in the uterus and cause the scarring of the old cesarean section, which is called a hernia of the waist of the uterus (isthmocele). Hernia of the waist of the uterus can lead to inflammation in the uterus and affect the nesting process.
- be infected
Infection, including sexually transmitted infections can cause pelvic inflammatory disease. Infection can lead to scarring and obstruction of the ovary ducts. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can also affect cervical mucus and reduce fertility.
- Auto-immune disorders
The relationship between auto-immune disorders and infertility has not been fully explored. In general, auto-immune disorders cause the body to attack healthy tissues, including spawning tissues.
Auto-immune disorders such as Hashimoto's disease, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect fertility by causing inflammation in the uterus and placenta. In addition, medications used to treat these disorders can also contribute to infertility.
Scientists claim that age plays a role in fertility. Biologically, the highest fertility in women is in their 20s, which begins to decrease at the age of 30 and decreases significantly at the age of 40. This does not mean that successful pregnancy does not occur in mothers of a younger age, it can only take longer or more difficulty.
- Unsym causeless second-born infertility
This is the answer that any woman does not want to hear, but sometimes doctors do not find a specific reason for a diagnosis for secondary infertility.
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Source: mayoclinic.org, healthline.com
- Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian adhesion
- Capacitors of old birth incisions can lead to second-hand infertility
- Endoscopy of the uterus separation chamber