Fingerprints are a distinctive feature of each person, used for the purpose of identifying and investigating crimes. Scientists are still searching for mysteries around fingerprints. Let's learn more about fingerprints in the following article.
1. Why do people have fingerprints?
In 1910, Thomas Jennings fled a murder, however, his fingerprints were left clearly on the railings of the exterior of the house at the scene he committed the crime. Jennings' fingerprints were used as evidence in the criminal investigation and he was convicted of murder in 1911. This is the first time fingerprints have been used in an investigative case.
Since then, fingerprints have been seen as important evidence in forensic investigations. Fingerprint recognition signs are so suitable for crime detection missions, that it is almost considered the main reason for the existence of this concept. So, why do we have fingerprints?
Researcher Roland Ennos, a professor at the University of Hull in England, said: "Thanks to fingerprints, we can hold on more firmly or feel increased tagon. These are two different streams of opinions about fingerprints."
Professor Ennos has devoted part of his research career to investigating how fingerprints help us hold on more closely. The friction between our hands and the surfaces we touch is achieved thanks to the grooves and extremely small peaks of the fingerprint, which makes it possible for us to grip more tightly.
One evidence to prove this theory is that the fingertips can act like rubber tires in cars, they have ductile flexible properties that allow to fit the surface they pass through. In tires, this flexibility is combined with the tire bolts, which expands the surface area of the tire, thus, also increasing friction and traction. Ennos wanted to study the idea with a laboratory experiment.
To find out how much skin touched the glass, the researchers pulled a sheet of perspex glass (a clear and tough plastic) through the fingers, the force of which varies depending on the degree and they use fingerprint ink.
Surprisingly, these experiments showed that "since the grooves are not linked together, the actual area of contact has been reduced by fingerprints," Professor Ennos said. However, this does not exclude the possibility that fingerprints can assist to adhere to other surfaces. For example, fingerprints can help us to fasten surfaces in wet conditions, as well as water retaining grooves on car tires.
But others argue: Fingerprints play a role in touch support. The biology and physics student Georges Debrégeas – Sorbonne University – Paris, found out why humans have fingerprints and decided to learn about the role of fingerprints for touch. In response to mechanical s stimulation such as touch, our fingers have 4 types of mechanisms. Mr. Debrégeas specifically learns about a special type of mechanism – the Pacinian sub-body (touch receptors in theskin ) – which occurs about 2mm below the surface of the skin at the tip of the finger.
With small vibrations of an exact frequency – 200 Hz , this mechanism especially becomes more sensitive and that is why our fingertips have extremely high sensitivity. Mr. Debrégeas wondered if fingerprints would help increase this sensitivity.
He and his colleagues designed a bio-touch sensor to learn more about the issue. The sensors will detect vibrations similar to the way Pacinian sub-bodies do, which are designed to resemble the structure of the human finger. One device is designed to be very smooth and another has a rugged texture on the surface that mimics human fingerprints. The device has a rugged surface that offers an attractive discovery when moving on a surface. Pacinian sub-bodies are very sensitive to it by the ridges on the sensor that amplify the correct vibration frequency .
This device shows that our fingerprints will transfer these precise vibrations to the sensors below the skin through simulated activity for human fingers. It can be concluded that fingerprints increase our tagon exposure by amplifying information in detail and clearly. According to the specialist, the nature of the signals can be completely changed with fingerprints.
Human hands are decisive tools in the search for food and eating food, the hands also help us to explore the world. We can categorise food, avoid spoiled or infected food thanks to the sensitivity of the fingers.
According to Debrégeas, fingerprints can serve the goal of increased touch and grip. Because we have this delicate touch, we are very good at controlling and handling everything. This is the constant feedback loop between what we touch and what we feel.
For example, to maintain grip, you need to be able to detect changes on the surface of something with sensitive fingertips in case it slips out of your hand while you are holding it.
If something slips out of your hand while you're holding it, you need to be able to detect changes on its surface with sensitive fingertips to maintain grip. So Mr. Debrégeas argues, it is possible that touch and precise grip really grow together.
Professor Ennos argues that fingerprints can prevent blisters. The fingerprints help prevent blistering, whilestill allowing the skin to stretch at angles, so that the skin maintains contact.
In fact, there is no denying the important role of fingerprints in investigating and identifying crimes. So far, however, why humans have fingerprints remains an unsol answered question.
2. Fingerprint recognition
Fingerprint recognition is a form of biometrics, a science that uses human physical or biological characteristics to identify them.
Everyone has different fingerprints, no one like anyone, not even twins. Fingerprints do not change, even as we age, unless the skin on the fingers is destroyed or deliberately altered by plastic surgery.
There are three main fingerprint patterns called domes, loops, and fingerprints. The shape, size, quantity and arrangement of the small details in these fingerprint patterns make each fingerprint unique.
3. Under what cases are fingerprints used?
Cross-examination of fingerprint prints found at the crime scene with other fingerprint prints in the police database is likely to link a range of crimes to each other or to identify a suspect at the crime scene.
INTERPOL (International Criminal Police Organization) runs an international fingerprint database called automatic fingerprint recognition system (AFIS).
Authorized users in member countries can cross-check records from their national fingerprint database with data systems from AFIS, when they suspect this may be an international crime. AFIS contains more than 220,000 fingerprint records and more than 17,000 traces at the crime scene.
In 2019, INTERPOL implemented more than 1,600 identifying information thanks to member countries' increased sharing and comparison of fingerprint data.
Through the AFIS port, users receive test results very quickly:
- For unknown individuals in the database, this takes only a few minutes (automatic search).
- For individuals known in the database, this takes about an hour (semi-automatic search).
- For potentially unknown prints from the crime scene, the process takes about an hour (manual process).
The automated process means that the database can make more than 3,000 comparisons per day. The system is also capable of searching for and saving palm prints.
New ABIS (automated biometric identification system) technology will be implemented in the future to enable faster and more accurate searches. It will also integrate with a new biometric center to allow searches to be arranged appropriately across all INTERPOL forensic databases. This will save valuable time and show that these links may go un un attention.
Fingerprints can be obtained using electronic or manual scanning equipment (using ink and paper). Then, use the scanner to save the electronic data in the appropriate format.
Identify victims in disasters"
Along with DNA,fingerprints can play an important role in identifying victims after natural or artificial disasters such as earthquakes or bombings. This is important not only for the police who are investigating the incident, but also for the families involved.
Above is some information about fingerprints and the effects of fingerprints. Follow the website: Share99.netm regularly to keep up to date with more useful information.
For direct advice, please click hotline number or register online HERE. In addition, you can register for remote consultation HERE
Reference article: livescience.com, interpol.int
- The formation of fingerprints in humans
- Rehabilitation of cylindrical nerve damage
- What is a DNA fingerprint?