Understanding sexually transmitted diseases

Article written by Doctor of Urology Department, Share99 Central Park International Health Hub

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which usually occur as a result of sexual contact. Sexually transmitted pathogens can transmit the disease from person to person in the blood, semen, vaginal fluid and other body fluids.

1. What is sexually transmitted disease?

Sexually transmitted diseases – STDs are the English name for sexually transmitted diseases. The disease forms due to the spread of pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites from person to person through sexual contact.

Sometimes these organisms can transmit the disease without sexual contact, such as from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or through blood transfusions or sharing needles.

The person who is infected can contract sexually transmitted diseases from perfectly healthy people, or those who have an infection without knowing it. STDs are not always symptomatic, which is one of the reasons experts prefer to use the term "sexually transmitted infection" rather than "sexually transmitted disease."

2. Symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases

STIs may have a wide range of signs and symptoms, some asymptoatic cases. That is why they do not know of being infected until there are complications or the sexual friend is diagnosed. STIs signs and symptoms include:

  • Bumps or genital, oral or ulcers
  • Urinary pain or burning
  • Discharge from the urinary opening
  • Abnormal smelling vaginal secrety
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Pain during sex
  • Pain, swelling of the lymph nodes, especially in the groin area but sometimes more widespread
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • fever
  • Rashes on the torso, hands or feet

Signs and symptoms may appear a few days after exposure, or it can be years, before you detect it, depending on the pathogenic organisms.

vaginal bleeding

Vaginal bleeding may be a sign of sexually transmitted disease

3. When to see a doctor

You should see your doctor immediately if:

  • You have had sex and have probably been in contact with someone with STIs.
  • You have signs and symptoms of STIs to schedule a consultation with your doctor.
  • When you are about to start sexual activity or when you are 21 years old, whichever comes first.
  • Before you start having sex with a new sexual friend.

4.Causes of sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually infectious infections can be caused by:

  • Bacteria such as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia
  • Parasite: Trichomonas
  • Viruses: human papilloma (HPV), genital herpes, HIV

Sexual activity plays an important role in the transmission of the disease although these diseases can also be transmitted by other means without sexual contact such as: hepatitis A, B and C, shigella and Intestinalis Giardia.

Risk factors for sexually transmitted infections

Anyone who has ever had sex that is at risk of sexual infection (unsafe) to what extent. Factors that may increase risk include:

  • Unsused sex: Vaginal or intercourse of an infected partner who does not wear a condom significantly increases the risk of STI. Improper or inappropriate use of condoms may also increase the risk of infection.
  • Oral sex: may be less dangerous, but may still be transmitted by not using a condom or dental diaphragm. Dental diaphragm is a thin, square piece of rubber made from latex or silicon, which prevents contact between the oral mucous membrane and the skin.
  • Having sex with multiple sexual ants: The more sexual friends there are, the higher the risk of infection.
  • People who have had STIs: it is easier to get STIs.
  • People who are coerced into having sex or sexual contact.
  • Alcohol abuse or substance use: Substance abuse can cause you to lose control, making you willing to engage in dangerous behaviors.
  • Injecting drugs, sharing needle pumps: spreading many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
  • Youth: Half of STIs patients occur in people between the ages of 15 and 24.
  • Men taking erectile dysfunction medications such as sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis) and vardenafil (Levitra): had a higher incidence of STIs.
  • Mother-to-child transmission: Some STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV, and syphilis can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or during childbirth. STIs in children can cause serious and can be fatal problems. All pregnant women should be screened for STIs and treated early.

Gonorrhea bacteria

Sexually transmitted diseases can be caused by gonorrhea bacteria

5. Dangerous complications caused by sexually transmitted diseases

Because many people in the early stages of STI may be asympto symptomatic, STIs screening is important in preventing complications. Complications may include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Complications in pregnancy
  • Inflammation of the eyes
  • arthritis
  • Pelvic inflammation
  • Infertility
  • Heart disease

Some cancers, such as cervical, rectal cancer are associated with HPV.

6. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

If you have a history of sexual contact and current indications that you have signs of STIs infection, the test can identify the cause and detect infectious effects.

  • Blood test: A diagnostic blood test that determines HIV infection or syphilis.
  • Urine testing: Some STIs can be diagnosed with urine samples.
  • Secretion: If you have ulcers in the genitals, secretion and products taken from ulcers can help diagnose various types of infections. Testing from a genital ulcer or secret service is used to diagnose certain STIs.

A full blood test helps detect a variety of diseases

Blood tests help diagnose sexually transmitted diseases

7. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases

Testing for an asymptoatic person is called screening. STIs screening is not routine, but there are exceptions:

  • Everyone: A recommended STIs test for everyone between 13 and 64 is a human immunod depletive virus (HIV) test, the virus that causes AIDS taken from blood or saliva.
  • People were born between 1945 and 1965: those born between 1945 and 1965 had a high incidence of hepatitis C. Since this disease is usually asymptoatic, when detected, the disease has progressed. Experts recommend that everyone in this age group be screened for hepatitis C.
  • Pregnant women: SCREENING for HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia and syphilis is usually performed at the first pregnancy visit for all pregnant women. Screening for gonorrhea and hepatitis C is recommended at least once during pregnancy for women at high risk for these infections.
  • Women aged 21 and over: cervical abnormal Pap test, including: inflammation, pre-cancer changes and cancer. The disease is usually caused by several strains of the virus that causes human papilloma (HPV). Experts recommend that starting at the age of 21, women should take the Pap test at least every three years. After the age of 30, women are advised to take an HPV DNA test and a Pap test every five years or a Pap test every three years.
  • Women under the age of 25 who are sexually active: All sexually active women under the age of 25 should be tested for chlamydia. You can collect urine or vaginal secretal samples yourself for chlamydia tests. Some experts recommend repeating chlamydia trials three months after you have had a positive test and been treated. Second trials are necessary to confirm that infection cured by reinfection from an unexplained or improperly treated sexual friend is common. One-time chlamydia infection does not protect you from future exposure. You can have a recurrent infection, so check again if you have a new girlfriend.
  • Screening for gonorrhea is also recommended in women who have sex under the age of 25.
  • Men who had same-sex sex: Compared to other groups, men who had same-sex sex had a higher risk of STIs. Many health organizations recommend annual or more frequent STIs screening for these people. Regular examination of HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhea is especially important. Hepatitis B may also be recommended.
  • People living with HIV: HIV significantly increases the risk of being infected with another STIs. Experts recommend an immediate examination of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and herpes after being diagnosed with HIV. People with HIV should also be screened for hepatitis C.
  • Women with HIV can develop cervical cancer, so they need to have a Pap test within a year of being diagnosed with HIV, and then again six months later.
  • People with new sexual partner: Before vaginal or intersing with new sexual friends, make sure you have been tested for all STIs. It should be noted that there is no human papilloma (HPV) screening for men, nor is there a good screening test for genital herpes in both sexes. Therefore, the person may not know that he or she is infected until there are symptoms.
  • The person was infected with STIs in the early stages but the test was not detected.

8. Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases

STIs caused by bacteria are easier to treat than viruses. Viral infections can be controlled but not always cured. If you are pregnant and infected with STIs, timely treatment can prevent or reduce the risk of infection to the baby. Treatment consists of one of the following measures:

8.1. antibiotic

Antibiotics, usually in a single dose, can cure many sexually transmitted bacterial and parasite infections such as gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Most often, the person will be treated for gonorrhea and chlamydia at the same time because these two infections usually appear together. Once antibiotic therapy begins, it is important that the person adheres to the treatment. If the patient thinks that it will not be possible to take the medicine as prescribed, it is necessary to immediately notify the doctor so that another, simpler and shorter treatment regimen can be changed. In addition, the person must abstain from sex until the treatment is complete and all wounds have healed.

Side effects of taking ceftizoxime lni 0.5g

Antibiotics used to treat sexually transmitted diseases

8.2. Antiviral drugs

Herpes is less recurrent if used daily with an antiviral drug. Antiviral drugs reduce the risk of infection, but the person still has the risk of infecting a sexual friend. Antiviral drugs can control people living with HIV for years. But the virus persists and can still be transmitted to others at low risk. The earlier treatment begins, the higher the effectiveness. If the person is taking the drug in accordance with the instructions, the number of viruses can be reduced to almost uns detectable levels. Ask your doctor how long after treatment needs to be re-examined to make sure that the treatment is done properly and avoid reinfection.

8.3. Notification with a sexual contact and backup treatment

If the test results are STIs infected, the patient's sexual friends including current and sexual friends from three months to a year ago must be notified so that they can get tested and treated if infected. Notifying a partner can help limit the spread of STIs, especially for syphilis and HIV. People at risk of infection should receive appropriate advice and treatment. When infected with STIs more than once, informing and treating a sexual friend reduces the risk of reinfection.

9. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases

There are a number of measures that can avoid or reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections, including:

  • Abstinence: The most effective way to avoid STIs is to abstain, to have sex only with someone who is not infected. Another reliable way to avoid STIs is to maintain a long-term married relationship with an un-infected person.
  • Wait and verify: Avoid vaginal and intersingity with a new partner until both are tested for STIs. Oral sex is at low risk of infection but it is also recommended to use a condom or dental diaphragm (a thin square piece made of rubber or silicone) to avoid direct contact between the oral mucous membranes and the genitals. Keep in mind that there is no good screening for genital herpes for both sexes, and there has not been a human papilloma screening (HPV) test for men.
  • Vaccination: Early vaccination, before sexual contact, is also effective in preventing certain types of STIs such as human papilloma (HPV), hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccinating girls and boys aged 11 and 12. If not fully immunizations at ages 11 and 12, the CDC recommends that girls and women up to the age of 26 as well as boys and men up to the age of 26 be vaccinated. The hepatitis B vaccine is usually given to babies, and hepatitis A is given to 1-year-olds. Both vaccines are also recommended for vaccination of non-immune people and for those at high risk, such as men who have sex with the same sex and drug users.
  • Use condoms and dental diaphragm regularly and properly: Use new condoms or dental diaphragm every time you have sex, whether oral, vaginal or. Never use oil-based lubricants, such as lubricants, with condoms or dental diaphragm. Condoms made from natural membranes are not recommended because they are not effective in preventing STIs. Keep in mind that condoms not only reduce the risk of exposure to most STIs, but also protect less STIs associated with genital ulcers such as human papilloma (HPV) or herpes. Contraceptive pills or intra-uterus instruments, which do not protect against STIs.
  • Do not drink alcohol or use drugs excessively: If over-used, you are more likely to take sexual risks.
  • Communication: Before having sex, talk to your sexual intercourse safely. Clear agreement on what is or is not allowed.
  • Consider male cir baosing: There is evidence that cir baopped men can help reduce the risk of HIV infection by 60% from an infected woman (heterosexual transmission). Cutting the scalp can also help prevent infection with genital HPV and genital herpes.
  • Consider taking truvada: In July 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved the combined use of the drug emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada) to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection in high-risk people. Truvada is also used to treat HIV along with other drugs. When used to help prevent HIV infection, Truvada is only appropriate if the doctor knows for sure that the person is not HIV positive. In addition, you should also take a hepatitis B test, if you are not infected, your doctor may recommend getting the hepatitis B vaccine if you have not been vaccinated. If you have hepatitis B, your doctor should check your kidney function before prescribing Truvada. Truvada must be taken daily, exactly as prescribed, it is necessary to check HIV and kidney function every few months. Truvada should only be used in the same way as other precautions such as using condoms every time sex.

Above is knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases. For whatever reason, sexually transmitted diseases also pose a risk to health. Therefore, when the body shows strange signs, you should visit reputable facilities and quickly have the appropriate treatment regimen.

Noticing that importance, Share99 International Health Hub has been continuing to implement a Package of Examination and Screening of Social Diseases to help customers screen for social diseases to detect diseases early to have an effective treatment direction, avoiding complications.

Customers wishing to visit Share99 International Health Hub can register for examination at Share99 Health Hub and Clinic nationwide HERE.

SEE MORE:

  • What is safe sex?
  • When to think about testing for sexually transmitted diseases?
  • Results 0.069 < 1 COI trong xét nghiệm HIV test nhanh có ý nghĩa gì?

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of Share99.net. I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.

RELATED POSTS:

Leave a Comment

0 SHARES
Share
Tweet
Pin