Cervical cancer screening with HPV test and PAP test in women over 30 years old

Article by Master, Dr Huynh Ngan Khanh Linh – Obstetrician and Gynecologist – Obstetrics and Gynecology Department – Share99 Phu Quoc International Health Hub

Cervical cancer is the third most dangerous disease in the world in terms of mortality in women, behind only breast and ovarian cancer. However, nowadays with modern diagnostic methods, cervical cancer can be screening very early thanks to HPV test and PAP test, bringing many opportunities to treat the disease for women.

1. What is cervical cancer?

The cervical is the entrance of the uterus, which is part of the female genitals. Accordingly, cancer cells can grow on the cervical, similar to other bodies in the body. Usually cervical cancer develops slowly, which can take 10-15 years or longer for an abnormal cell to develop into cancer.

Cervical cancer is usually asymptoous until it worsens. Women with advanced cervical cancer may have symptoms of abnormal bleeding, bad gas, or pain.

2. What are the causes of cervical cancer?

Human papillomavirus is a virus also known for short as HPV, which is a very common virus, which can infect the genitals of both men and women. They usually do not cause any symptoms and can discharge themselves. Accordingly, this virus can convert normal cervical cells into abnormalities. After many years, this abnormal cell can turn into cancer if not detected and treated.

The patient cannot feel or identify for himself or herself if he or she is infected with HPV, or if the cell in his cervical is modified, because of signs of asymptotic cervical cancer like many other diseases.

Accordingly, abnormal cells are sometimes called precular cells because they are unusual but not necessarily precular cells. On the other hand, cervical cancer is not as heredic as many other diseases.


HPV is a virus that causes infection on the genitals of both men and women

3. How does HPV affect the body?

Some types of HPV can transform a woman's cervical cells and lead to cancer after years. On the other hand, type HPV causes genital warts in both men and women (rooster crests…). But type HPV causes genital warts other than the TYPE HPV that causes cervical cancer, which is of low risk type.

Most HPV eliminates itself within 2 years and does not cause health problems. It is thought that it is because the body's natural immune system has been fighting against the penetration of HPV. However, there are also cases where HPV is not eliminated and still exists. If HPV persists on cervical cells for many years can lead to cervical cancer.

4. Q&A for early cervical cancer screening

4.1 Why am I infected with HPV?

HPV is transmitted by genitals (vaginal or falls) or skin contact adjacent to the skin. Most people don't know that they have HPV. It is not necessary to find out when and who was transmitted.

HPV is very common and most people are susceptible to HPV at the beginning of sex. So all women who have had sex are more likely to have cervical cancer.

HPV and cervical cancer

Women who have had sex are all more likely to have cervical cancer.

4.2 How can I prevent cervical cancer?

You can prevent cervical cancer by doing periodic screening tests such as Pap test and HPV-DNA test (HPV test)

Pap TEST is a screening test for cervical cancer, looking for abnormal cells on the cervical that those cells can turn into cancer. So those abnormalities can be detected early and treated before they turn into cancer.

HPV TEST is a test for the presence of HPV, a virus that can transform cervical cells into abnormalities. For women 30 years of age and older should do HPV test simultaneously with Pap test. This helps to detect abnormalities early and remove the lesions before they turn to cancer.

In fact, cervical cancer usually does not cause symptoms as they transform into advanced cancer cells. Therefore screening for cervical cancer at an early stage is essential, even if you are normal, healthy and without any signs.

You can get a combination of both to extend the screening period for the next 5 years if you have a negative HPV and pap result. However, if hpv test is not done and normal PAP results can be screening every 3 years.

4.3. Why not give HPV screening to younger women or minors?

HPV is very common in women under 30 years of age. However, most HPV detected in this group of women does not cause any health problems, so it is not necessary to check for HPV in young women. Most young women will fight to exclude HPV within a few years.

HPV is almost a signal of health problems in women, they may have been infected with the virus for years, and their bodies are not fighting AGAINST HPV. The doctor will use the HPV test to check if these women are in the high-risk group for cervical cancer and whether they need to do screening more often.

Accordingly, routine PAP screening is still considered a good cervical cancer screening test for women 21 years and older.

4.4. If I have HPV, am I at risk of cervical cancer?

No answer. Being infected with HPV does not mean cervical cancer. HPV is the virus that causes cervical cancer. There are many women with HPV, however if they are monitored, tested or treated by a doctor, only a few of them turn to cervical cancer.

4.5 What will I do if I have to do a test?

Depending on the results of your test, your doctor will advise you on other diagnostic tests:

  • Usually wait before repeating the Pap or HPV test.
  • Cervical examination with a special instrument, which helps to better see the abnormalities on the cervical.
  • Cervical bios (take a small sample of tissue on the cervical for more careful testing).
  • Treatment, destruction or taking of abnormal cells.
  • Specialist consultation, usually when test results are suspected of cancer.

4.6. Why wait for more tests when I have the potential to get cancer?

It is possible that abnormal cells change back to normal without any treatment. Treatment can be high in risk and side effects, so make sure you need treatment before you start. Cervical cells change very slowly. Stay calm and should return for a check-up and do the necessary tests on your doctor's advice.

4.7. What else should I do to prevent cervical cancer

  • Check-up on time.
  • Do more tests or treatments on doctor's advice.
  • Do a Pap test at least every 3 years, every 5 years if you do psp test and HPV test simultaneously.
  • Avoid smoking: Smoking can damage the cells in your body including cervical cells. If you smoke simultaneously with HPV, you are more likely to switch to cancer.

4.8. Is there a way to treat HPV or abnormal cells?

There is no way to treat HPV but there is an abnormal cell treatment, by destroying or taking away that abnormal cell. Treatment of abnormal cells helps prevent them from growing into cancer. No treatment is absolutely perfect. Therefore, it is advisable to periodically re-examine and check if abnormal cells are growing again. You need to do screening more often, most people rule out the virus.

4.9. If there is HPV infection or abnormal cervical cells, does it affect the chances of pregnancy or childbirth?

Hpv infection or abnormal cervical cells do not affect pregnancy and pregnancy. Cancer-related viruses do not affect the health of the baby. But if you have treated when there are abnormal cervical cells, this treatment (tip, leep) can cause premature birth.

4.10. Can I infect my current sexual with HPV?

If you have been living with your girlfriend for some time the infection may occur.

4.11. How to avoid infecting your sexual girlfriend with HPV?

The use of condoms can reduce infection if used correctly and completely during intersable. However, HPV can be infected in areas where condoms are not covered, so using a condom is not a complete protection from HPV. The absolute safe way to prevent transmission is non-intersable.


Condoms can reduce the risk of HPV infection

4.12. I've heard of the vaccine – hpv vaccine, so how does it help me?

HPV vaccine helps fight HPV types that often cause cervical cancer and are given 3 injections. Vaccine – vaccine is recommended for girls 11-12 years old. However, it is also possible to inject a 9- or 10-year-old. The HPV vaccine is also recommended for boys and young men.

4.13. If I have had a uterus removed, do I need a screening periodically?

Depending on the cause of the uterus removal and whether you have a full or semi-partication of the uterus, whether or not the cervical remains. If you have had a full uterus removed due to another cause that is not cancer then you may not need screening.

Although it is a cancer that accounts for a high proportion in women, you can completely get vaccinated – a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and screening for cervical cancer at an early stage.

With a modern equipment system and a team of highly specialized and experienced doctors, when performing the package of screening and early detection of gynecologic cancer at Share99 International Health Hub, customers will be screened for cervical cancer in the following steps:

  • Consultation with obstetrician and gynecologist
  • Cervical cancer screening through automatic system HPV genotype PCR and vaginal ultrasound of the uterus.
  • Cervical endoscopy: Detects abnormal early lesions in the cervical
  • Other tests: abdominal ultrasound, blood test …

In order to improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment, Share99 International Health Hub has applied ThinPrep Pap Test cervical cancerearly detection test, this new method is currently commonly used in the US and Europe. ThinPrep Pap Test has made a turning point compared to the traditional Pap smear method, through membrane-controlled cell transfer technology, which increases sensitivity and specificity in the detection of precteriteric cells, especially glandular macrons, a type of cancer cell that is difficult to detect.

At Share99, the application of modern methods and procedures to ensure asepticity helps to achieve the most accurate results. Screening results are paid home with specific counseling and recommendations for patients.

For advice and to make an examination, you can contact Share99 hospital and clinic system nationwide HERE


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About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of Share99.net. I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


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