The article was consulted professionally by Dr. Le Tan Dat, Radiotherapy Center – Share99 Central Park International Health Hub.
Some types of cancer can be cured by stem cell transplantation, which is a great advance of world medicine. In Vietnam, the treatment of certain types of cancer with stem cell therapy has now been carried out in many places.
1. Types of stem cell transplants
In stem cell transplantation, patientsreceive hematoma stem cells via intravenous transmission. Once in the body, these stem cells move to the bone marrow and replace damaged cells during cancer treatment. Heaplastic stem cells used in transplantation can be obtained from the bone marrow, in the blood or the umbilical cord. Types of stem cell transplants include:
- Auto-transplant ("Self-Graft"): Source stem cells from the person who transmits it back to themselves.
- Conformation ("Hetero transplant"): Stem cells taken from others. The donor may be a blood-related person but may also be a person who does not have a blood-to-gut relationship, but is required to be genetically fit.
- Same system: Stem cell source comes from the patient's twin siblings.
To minimize undesirable effects and improve the likelihood of success in stem cell transplantation, donors must bring the right hematoma stem cell source to the patient.
2. Mechanism for curing cancer with stem cell transplantation
Stem cell transplantation usually has no direct effect during cancer treatment. Instead, this transplant helps patients restore stem cell production after rounds of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both. For example, in the treatment of hematomas, after a course of high-dose chemotherapy treatment, destroys cancer cells, but at the same time destroys the hematoma stem cells of the person himself. Thanks to the transplantation (infusion) of stem cells, hematoma cells recover, re-produce the same blood cells, immune cells, thereby helping the patient to recover from the disease.
However, in a con-type stem cell transplant, it is possible to directly fight cancer. This occurs due to a mechanism called "Transplant cells against tumors" (the "Anti-Tumor Transplant" effect) after conducting hetero-grafting. This mechanism occurs when white blood cells from donors attack cancer cells left in the patient's body after cancer treatments with high doses of drugs. Thereby, stem cell transplantation is also capable of improving the effectiveness of treatments.
Cure cancer with stem cells is often used for people with leukemia, lymphoma, neuroblastoma and multiple myeloma.
3. Side effects of stem cell transplantation
Before a stem cell transplant, patientsare often treated for cancer with high-dose chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. This process can cause dangerous side effects, such as hemorrhages and an increased risk of infection.
When conducting stem cell transplantation, patients are likely to suffer from a serious problem called"Anti-Master Transplantation"disease (transplant cell against the transplant recipient). This phenomenon occurs when white blood cells from donors identify the cells in the transplant recipient's body as "foreigners" and attack them. This can cause damage to the skin, liver, intestines and many other organ of the person, which usually occurs from several weeks after the transplant. The condition is treated with anti-graft drugs, such as steroids or some other drug aimed at suppressing the patient's immune system.
The more similar the donor hematoma stem cell is to the recipient's cell, the less likely it is to occur graft discharge. Therefore, the donor should be a family member, related to the patient.
4. Time for stem cell transplantation
Cancer treatment with stem cell transplantation can take up to several months to complete. The cancer treatment process usually begins with planning such as: Can transplant, stem cell source for transplant (prepare yourself or find people to fit genotype,…), collect stem cells to ensure the transplant, then conduct rounds of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of both. This period takes place for a week or two, followed by a period of rest.
Next, the patient will receive hematoma stem cells transmitted intravenously, similar to blood transfusions. However, it takes 1 to 5 hours to receive the entire amount of stem cells.
After receiving the stem cells, the person begins the recovery phase. During this time, blood stem cells will create new blood cells. There is a period when the person must be in the isolation room, with the highest erm and safe conditions, because of the risk of infection, severe hemorrhage. Even if the patient's blood volume has returned to normal, it takes several months for the patient's immune system to fully recover for a self transplant or between 1 and 2 years for the transplant.
5. How does stem cell transplantation affect patients?
Stem cell transplantation affects every case in different ways, depending on:
- Type of implants performed
- Therapeutic doses available before transplantation
- Effectiveness in response to high-dose treatments
- The type of cancer that the patient has and the degree of progress
- Pre-transplant health situation
The doctor will monitor the effectiveness of stem cell transplantation by regularly checking the patient's blood volume. When newly transplanted stem cells begin to produce blood cells, the blood volume of the transplant recipient increases.
6. Note after stem cell transplantation
6.1. Special post-transplant nutrition
Some of the side effects patients may experience during stem cell transplant treatment are loss of appetite, difficulty eating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucosal ulcers (oral throat, gastrointestinal tract,…) The success of the transplant depends a lot on the special nutrition for transplant patients.
6.2. Working problems during stem cell transplantation
Whether the patient can work during a stem cell transplant depends on the type of work to be done. The entire stem cell transplant process, along with high-dose treatment steps with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and final recovery can take up to several months. The patient will be hospitalized several times during this time. Even if the patient does not stay in the hospital, he or she must sometimes be nearby, rather than residing at work or home away from the hospital. Therefore, if the work allows, the patient should make arrangements for remote work.
7. Stem cell cancer treatment at Share99 Times City
Share99 is the first hospital in Vietnam that has invested in research and intensive research in the field of stem cell application in cancer treatment and achieved many successes. Successful cases of stem cell transplantation for cancer have brought hope and opportunities for effective cancer treatment right at Share99 Times City without having to go abroad.
Advantages when choosing treatment at Share99 Oncology Department:
- A team of experienced and highly specialized doctors.
- Comprehensive professional cooperation with domestic and international hospitals: Singapore, Japan, USA,..
- Comprehensive treatment and care for patients, multidisciplinary coordination in the direction of individualization of each patient.
- There are a full range of leading treatments for cancer: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, immune enhancement, mitigation care, nutrition …
- Patients before treatment are passed through a professional council, with the participation of leading experts: Surgery, Oncology, Anatomy, Imaging, Radiotherapy …
- Treatment regimens comply with international clinical practice guidelines (updated regularly), as well as refer to regional and domestic oncology hospitals (guidance on treatment of the Ministry of Health of Vietnam).
- The treatment drugs provided by the Pharmacy Department always ensure the best quality.
Customers interested in stem cell transplant therapy can go directly to Share99 Times City International Health Hub for examination or contact hotline 0243 9743 556 for assistance.
Article reference source: Cancer.gov
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