Use of blood and blood products

All the blood products used today are taken from donors. Accordingly, blood transfusion indications are always considered benefits and risks so that the use of blood is safe and effective.

1. How to use blood products: Red blood cells

1.1. Total blood

Whole blood is packaged in the form of 250ml per unit with a storage period under standard conditions for about 35 days.

The use of whole blood compared to emia is quite limited. Therefore, whole blood is rarely used. This form of the product is used in cases of emergency blood loss causing a decrease in the volume of circulation, when performing a blood replacement procedure or replacing alysis when there is no availability or emia deficiency.

Do not use total blood in case of compensatory blood when chronic anemia or heart failure or circulation overload has just arisen.

Before a full blood transfusion, always check the appropriate ABO and Rhésus systems. The total blood removed from the refrigerator needs to be transmitted quickly within 30 minutes and must be completed within 4 hours.

1.2. Red blood cells

Red blood cells are packaged in the form of 250ml, 350ml or 450ml per unit with a standard storage time of about 35 days. The average hemoglobin rate (Hct) of red blood cells is 65 to 75%.

Spread use of emia is most extensive in blood products. Accordingly, red blood cells are used when:

  • Replacement of red blood cells for patients with severe anemia with Hb below 6 to 8 g/dL; can be used together with a solution of glue in case of emergency blood loss.
  • Patients with leukemia should maintain Hb above 8 g/dL for patients in the period of withdrawal, stable patients or patients who have received temporary treatment if there are no clinical abnormalities. Hb should be maintained above 9 g/dL when the patient needs chemotherapy, a stage of myeloid failure due to chemotherapy, or a coordinated cardi lung disease.
  • Thalassemia patients should maintain Hb above 9.5 g/dL in the first years of life to ensure the development of the body.

Before the infusion of emia or general blood products, appropriate testing of ABO and Rhésus systems should be performed. Ion cells removed from the refrigerator need to be transmitted quickly within 30 minutes and must be completed within 4 hours.

In adults, each unit of average blood will raise Hb to 1 g/dL or Hct to 3%. However, since the ideal blood count in the human body varies depending on age, the average volume of reds needs to be transmitted at about 10 to 20 ml/kg of weight. If the patient has pre-20s chronic anemia, the amount of rye to be transmitted should be less than 5ml/kg of weight simultaneously with transmission lasting more than 4 hours.

If there is a possibility of rapid transmission of emia due to critical condition, an additional 0.9% sodiumchloride infusion runs parallel to the blood transfusion line. The volume of NaCl 0.9% to use is equivalent to the volume of blood.

erythrocyte

Appropriate ABO and Rhésus tests should be noted before transfusion of blood-related products

1.3. White blood cells

Poor white blood cells are packed under a volume of 120ml per unit with a very small number of leukocytes, less than one million cells per unit. The average hemoglobin rate (Hct) of white blood cells is 60 to 70%.

The main introsmation for the use of leukocytoid poverty is on patients with a bone marrow transplant in order to minimize the patient's immune response, reducing the risk of cytomegalo virus (CMV) infection. At the same time, in patients with more than two blood transfusion fevers, poor red blood cells should be given when hemoglobin is needed.

How to use poor red blood cells as well as whole blood. In the event of a poor red blood cells, white blood cells can be used.

1.4. Red blood cells wash

Red blood cells are a blood product that only has red blood cells after it has been washed through a physiological saline solution. The goal of washing red blood cells is to reduce the mixing of proteins in plasma. This is the smallest packaged red blood cells with 100ml per unit. The average hemoglobin rate (Hct) of rye washing is 65 to 75%.

In addition to the use of urethrombolysis will be given when suspicion in plasma there are antibodies that can harm the recipient. In particular, the most commonly prescribed is when blood transfusions are needed for patients with IgA deficiency, noccnal hemolysis and prevention for patients with reactions to plasma components.

It is important to note that blood transfusions of red blood cells should be used within 24 days after washing.

2. How to use blood products from tinglets

Tsinglet

Tsinglets are also collected from the whole blood of the blood donor or from the person who donates only the tinglet (other components will be returned right during the blood donation)

Tsinglets are also collected from the blood donor's entire blood or from the person who donates only the tinglet (other components will be returned right during the blood donation). Tinglet units are usually combined into a set of six units with a volume of 240ml, containing between 320 and 380 billion tingelets, and the number of leukocy cells can be mixed very low.

Concentrated tinglets can be used for 24 hours after extraction and leave for up to 5 days under continuous shaking conditions with room temperature of 20 to 24 degrees Celsius to avoid adhesion.

The inlets for the use of tinglets are as follows:

  • Treatment of throesosis bleeding with myeloid failure, due to large volume transfusions or throes dysfunction
  • Prevents bleeding caused by tinglet reduction
  • Patients with acute leukemia or stable myeloid transplant with thrombocyletes below 10,000uL or less than 20,000uL with hemorrhage
  • Preventive thrombocymbocyletal infusion for patients with fever, sepsis, previous bleeding, high leukocytosis, severe mucositis, hemolytic plyotosis, the oncological onculation, and thrombocyletes decrease rapidly when the thrombocyletes are below 20,000uL.
  • In patients who need a small procedure, surgery, tinglet lifting is required above 50,000uL. In patients who need major surgery such as neurosurgey, tinglet lifting is required above 100,000uL.

Note that there is no tinglet infusion when suffering from diseases that destroy tinglets due to contracting, taking anti-tingerial drugs … In addition, thrombolytic transfusion will be ineffective when patients with fever, spleen, sepsis or invascular coaalysis spread.

When transmiting tinglets, it should be done immediately after taking blood out of the shaker and finishing within 20 to 30 minutes. At the same time, it is still necessary to try cross-reactions of the ABO and Rhesus systems when transmiting tinglets similar to other blood products.

3. How to use frozen fresh plasma

Frozen fresh plasma contains most of the necessary blood clot elements in the body. In addition, frozen fresh plasma also has albumin and immunogens. Each unit of frozen fresh plasma is prepared with a volume of 120ml.

In addition to frozen fresh plasma infusion is when there is a congenital blood clot disorder such as hemophilia B or acquired due to liver disease, overdose of anti-vitamin K drugs, decreased blood clot factor when blood transfusion is large.

Before infusion of frozen fresh plasma, cross-reaction of ABO and Rhesus systems is still required. At the same time, it is necessary to transmit as soon as possible after defrosting, it is best to for 30 minutes and a maximum of 6 hours because the coaulation factors will decrease rapidly if left as long as possible in normal environments.

plasma

Patients with congenital blood clot disorders will be prescribed frozen fresh plasma infusion

4. How to use cold precipitations

Each unit of cold precipitation is about 20 to 30ml containing coaulation elements VIII, fibrinogen and Von Willebrand.

Cold precipitation is more specialized in frozen fresh plasma in hemophilia A, due to fibrinogen deficiency, XIII coaulation factor deficiency, and Von Willebrand's disease.

In short, from the whole blood received from the blood donor, hematmatological doctors will prepare into different blood-from-blood compositions with different blood uses. Because blood is a special "biological drug", both precious and rare, blood transfusions need to be done correctly to achieve the highest therapeutic effect.

SEE MORE:

  • How to categorise blood type
  • Basic blood transfusion principles
  • The role of identifying blood type before blood transfusion
  • Rh factor blood test
SEE MORE:

  • What is red blood cells?
  • Blood transfusion: When to do it?
  • Note when blood transfusions, blood products for babies

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of Share99.net. I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.

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