Blood cultures in positive sepsis are the gold standard that helps doctors diagnose diseases. Blood culture tests also help identify bacteria, make antibiotics, increase the rate of successful treatment and reduce the rate of antibiotic resistance.
1. What is sepsis?
Sepsis or septicaemia is the most serious infection pathology when the body reacts to the presence of pathogens present in the blood.
The pathogen is bacteria that live permanently in the body, bacteria from the anesthrosis or inflammation from the released bodies into the bloodstream constantly or the group of bacteria that directly attack the blood system of the body.
Some of the bacteria that usually cause sepsis are enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Clostridium perfringens, …
Sepsis causes many complications, the most severe of which are multi-agencyal failure and death. When bacteria enter the body, releasing toxins stimulates the body to release cytokines, initiating a total inflammatory response.
People who are often at high risk for sepsis are:
- Infants and young children
- Long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs or cell poisons in the treatment of cancer
- People with chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis of the liver, cardiovascular diseases, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure.
- People with malignant diseases, especially those related to the blood and lymphatic systems such as lymphoma, leukemia
- Patients are using assist devices or tools such as intt management tubes, gastric sonde placing, catheter line placing.
Sepsis is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical manifestations and the results of subclinical, imaging tests. Among them, blood culture tests play a role in the diagnosis of a sepsis. Positive blood cultures are certain when at least 2 positive tests or blood cultures and bacterial patient transplants are positive for the same bacteria.
2. Blood cultures in sepsis
Blood cultures in sepsis help identify pathogenic microorganisms; identify the causes of the disease and make antibiotics that increase the effectiveness of treatment, reduce mortality and reduce antibiotic resistance.
3. Blood transplantation in sepsis
To ensure accuracy, blood culture tests should be carried out in a sedation according to the following procedure:
- Take a blood test tube, fill in the information in the sticker, including the patient's full name, age, time of blood draw in detail all day and time, the name of the department prescribing the blood culture test, and the order number of the blood transplant in the patient to be tested several times.
- Intravenous blood: Do the same as other blood grabs, but always raise the absolute slogan harmless. The blood-grabbing location should be disinfected with iodine alcohol 2 times, and with alcohol 70 degrees at a time afterwards. Don't let the needle touch anything else. The volume of blood cultures required in adults is about 20-30 ml on average and about 1-3ml in children.
- Open and disinfect the protective cap with 70-degree alcohol. Wait for the dry then pump the blood directly into the bottle blood. Shake gently so that the blood is mixed well.
- Transport the patient to the laboratory department as soon as possible. Do not store in the refrigerator, in case of not being able to transport immediately, blood duct can be placed in an environment with an average temperature of about 25 degrees Celsius.
- At the micro-laboratory, the blood transferred will be checked to remove blood samples with abnormal manifestations such as turbidity, residue,… After that, the blood will be removed in a harmless environment for testing for pathogenic microorganisms.
4. Some notes when performing blood culture tests
Blood cultures should be done correctly according to the procedure to bring the most honest results, because blood cultures are the means used to diagnose and guide the treatment of a blood infection. Some points to keep in mind when performing a blood culture test include:
4.1 Get the right volume of blood
A blood culture test requires a blood volume of about 20 to 30 ml. Get the right volume of blood to exclude false negative cases because the number of pathogenic bacteria is not high enough. The amount of pathogenic bacteria increases in proportion to the amount of blood in a specimen. Do not take more than 1% of the total volume of blood in patients who are children.
4.2 Time to get blood
The patient should be given blood within 1 hour from the time of fever because this is the period during which microorganisms grow rapidly and enter the patient's bloodstream at high concentrations. Blood samples taken during this period have a higher positive rate, increasing the likelihood of detecting sepsis. Blood donations should best be carried out before the patient uses antibiotics, however it is not therefore delayed the prescribing of antibiotics in severe cases. If antibiotics have been used before, use should be discontinued for at least 24 hours before blood is taken.
4.3 Ensure specimens are not contaminated
During blood sampling, if not noticed during practice steps, the test blood sample may stain the bacteria from the surrounding environment for false positive results. Some ways to help limit invasive foreign bacteria include: blood transplantation from two different blood tubes on the same patient, blood cultures combined with other disease implants from the outbreak.
4.4 Blood samples
Never take only one blood sample on a patient. Usually on clinical practice, patients with suspected sepsis are usually prescribed 2 or 3 samples for blood culture testing.
Share99 International Health Hub is one of the hospitals that not only ensures professional quality with a team of leading doctors, modern technology equipment system but also stands out for comprehensive and professional medical examination, consultation and treatment services; civilized, polite, safe and sterilized medical examination and treatment space. Customers who choose to perform tests here can be assured of the accuracy of the test results.
Any questions as well as customers wishing to treat diseases at Share99 International Health Hub, customers can contact Share99 Health System nationwide or register online HERE.
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