What is microarray-based genome hybrid method and clinical applications

The article was written by Dr. Bui Thi Phuong Hoa – Genetic Consultant – Share99 High-Tech Center.

Microarray-based genome comparison hybrid (aCGH) is a molecular cellular technique that detects changes in chromo population numbers across the entire genome with high resolution. aCGH compares the patient's genome with the reference genome and determines the differences between the two genomes and thereby determines the area of genome imbalance in the patient, using the same principles of competitive fluorescence in the local hybrid as traditional CGH.

1. What is microarray comparative genomic hybridization

With the advent of CGH arrays, the main limitation of ordinary, low-resolution CGH, was overcome. In aCGH, chromochroma in the middle period are replaced by fragments of dna that are human (+100-200 kb) of chromochromoth precision locations. This allows for more detailed and further detection of changes, allowing for direct restability of changes to genome sequences.

Array CGH has proven to be a specific, responsive, fast and high-resolution technique, with significant advantages over other methods used to analyze changes in the number of DNA copies that make diagnostic applications easier. Using this method, changes in the number of replication can be detected at 5-10Kb.

This method allows people to identify new chromogenic variations such as micro-segmentation and microppables in diseases such as cancer and birth defects caused by chromochromogenic transformation.

Heredity due to chroma abnormalities

Hybrid microarray-based genome comparison helps identify NST variations

2. principle

  • Patient samples and standard samples are marked with two different fluorescent substances (Cy3, Cy5) before crossing with probes fixed on solid bodies.
  • The number of probes varies according to the resolution of the bio-use set. The more probes, the higher the resolution of the technique. These probes are designed along the length of the NST.
  • Patient samples and standard samples, after crossing with probes are washed to remove non-hybrid segments before reading on the Scanner.
  • Fluorescent signals are issued from the patient sample and the standard sample is received, processed and compared to give abnormal results of the number of NST regions if any.

microarray

Microarray CGH Technical Principle

3. Application of microarray CGH technique

  • Genetic modifications in cancer: Genetic variations frequently occur in cancer and contribute to the path of cancer. Detecting these variations using aCGH provides information on the location of important cancer genes and can be used clinically in the diagnosis, classification and pregnosing of cancer.
  • Congenital genetic malformations: disease syndromes caused by loss of segments, or repetition of chromochromochroma. For example, Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman.
  • Pre-birth diagnosis
  • Screening for certain genetic diseases of embryos in artificial inseseation

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SEE MORE:

  • Application of microarray CGH in pre-birth diagnosis
  • Microarray CGH application in diagnostics
  • Microarray technologies and applications in genetics

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of Share99.net. I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.

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