The article was consulted professionally by Dr. Le Van Dinh – Obstetrics and Gynecology Department – Share99 Phu Quoc International Health Hub and Master, Dr. Tran Lam Khoa – Obstetrics and Gynecology Department – Share99 Central Park International Health Hub.
Placenta edema is a serious, life-threatening pathology of the fetus, in which the fetus has an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues around the heart, lungs, abdomen or under the skin.
1. What is placenta edema?
Placenta edema is a condition where the pregnancy accumulates from 2 or more body cavities or 1 cavity with skin edema, which can be caused by abnormalities such as cardiovascular abnormalities, gastrointestinal tract, thoracic cavity, fetal blood transfusion in the twin pregnancies …
Placenta edema has a fairly low incidence, which occurs in 1 in 1000 births. If you are pregnant and your baby is diagnosed with placenta edema, your doctor may require premature labor. However, even with treatment, more than half of babies with edema are at risk of dying just before or after birth.
2. Classification of placenta edema
There are two types of placenta edema: immune and non-immune. They depend on what causes placenta edema.
Non-immune placenta edema is the most common type. Example:
- Severe anemia, including thalassemia
- Fetal hemorrhage
- Fetuses with heart or lung malformations
- Genetic and chemical disorders, including Turner syndrome and Gaucher's disease
- Viral and bacterial infections such as Parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, syphilis and herpes
- Vascular malformations
Immune placenta edema usually occurs when the blood type of the mother and fetus is incompative to each other, also known as Rh factor incompation. If you are Rh negative and have a rh positivebaby , your immune system will attack the red blood cells of the fetus. This causes anemia. This type of placenta edema is not common today because Rhym yin women are often treated with immunoglobulin Rh to prevent this problem.
3. Symptoms of placenta edema
Pregnant women may experience the following symptoms if the fetus has placenta edema:
- Thick cakes
The fetus may also have an abnormally large spleen, heart or liver and fluid that surrounds the heart or lungs through ultrasound can be observed.
A baby born with placenta edema may have the following symptoms:
- Pale skin
- Swelling (edema), especially in the abdomen
- Abnormally large liver and spleen
- Shortness of breath
- Severe jaundice
4. Diagnosis of placenta edema
Diagnosis of placenta edema is usually made in an ultrasound of the fetus. The doctor may notice that the fetus has placenta edema during an ultrasound during a regular pregnancy examination. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to take photos directly inside the body. You can also get an ultrasound during pregnancy if you notice that the baby moves less often or you experience other pregnancy complications, such as high blood pressure.
Other diagnostic tests can be performed to help determine the severity or cause of the condition. Include:
- Fetal blood tests
- Amniotic puncture
- Fetal heart ultrasound to check for structural defects of the heart.
5. Is placenta edema dangerous?
When the placenta is diagnosed, the pregnant woman will be required to terminate the pregnancy, due to the ina possible continued nourishment of the pregnancy. Otherwise it is possible that the fetus dies in the womb after a while. In the case of babies born, babies are often unable to live because of premature birth or due to accompanying conditions, besides the mother is prone to bloodice, hypertension, pre-production, seizures because the uterus is too large and must contain cake together with the fetus with edema.
Therefore, in cases where the fetus is diagnosed with placenta edema, the mother must go to medical facilities with adequate emergency equipment to prevent potentially dangerous complications.
6. Treatment of placenta edema
Placenta edema is often not treatable during pregnancy. In some cases, the doctor may transmit blood to the baby (infusion of fetal blood in the uterus) to help increase the likelihood that the baby will survive until birth.
In most cases, the doctor will give early labor to give the baby the highest chance of survival. This is done with drugs that cause premature labor or an emergency cesarean section.
When the baby is born, the treatment can be used as:
- Use needles to remove excess fluid from the space around the lungs, heart or abdomen (thoracic cage)
- Respiratory support with a ventilator
- Use medications to control heart failure
- Use of drugs to help the kidneys remove excess fluid
For immune placenta edema, the baby can be directly transmitted red blood cells suitable for the baby's blood type. If the fetus has placenta edema due to another underlying condition, the baby will also be treated for that condition. For example, antibiotics are used to treat syphilis infections caused by children being transmitted from their mothers. The fetal tonta-fit fetality depends on the condition of the disease, but even with treatment, the survival rate of the baby is still quite low. In fact only about 20% of fetuses diagnosed with placenta edema can survive until birth, and of those babies, only about half will survive birth.
The risk of death is higher for fetuses diagnosed with placenta edema very early (under 24 weeks of age) or those with structural abnormalities, such as heart structural defects.
For the prevention of placenta edema, pregnant women should not smoke, drink alcohol and vaccinate – pre-pregnancy vaccinations such as influenza, measles and nasal injections – Rubella,.. Regular pregnancy examination and monitoring at reputable and highly specialized medical facilities.
Placenta edema is a pathology that can be detected early in repeated ultrasounds. Currently, Share99 International Health Hub is implementing a full maternityservice, helping women can be assured of monitoring, regular visits, early detection of fetal abnormalities (if any) and dedicated care during childbirth. With a team of professional doctors, wholehearted experience for the health benefits of patients will bring satisfaction to you!
Master, Dr. Tran Lam Khoa is trained and has worked specializing in fetal medicine and pre-reproduction diagnosis at Necker Health Hub – Pre-maternity Diagnostic Center – The largest fetal intervention and treatment center in France. It is also home to difficult and complex diseases with the world's leading professors of fetal medicine and fetal intervention. Currently, Dr. Khoa is working at Share99 Central Park International Health Hub, the doctor will directly diagnose, treat and intervene the fetus to bring healthy babies and bring happiness to parents in the future.
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