Article by Dr. Nguyen Thi Tam – Children's Center – Share99 Times City International Health Hub
Respiratory infections are an acute disease common in children. Children can get acute respiratory infections on average 4-6 times a year, including infections anywhere in the respiratory tract.
1. Causes of respiratory infections in children
Respiratory infections include infections at any location on the respiratory tract:
Upper respiratory infections: Rhinotracheitis, pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, acute sinusitis, acute otitis media, inflammation of the pharynx, broncheitis.
Lower respiratory infections: Bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia.
The causes of respiratory infections in children are largely caused by viruses with an affinity for the respiratory tract:
Respiratory conjuncular virus (RSV) tops, accounting for 50% of the causes of urinary inflammation
bronchi in a child <2 tuổi. The main respiratory hep cell viruses include: Adenovirus, influenza virus, a flu, measles, Rhinovirus …
RSV is easily transmitted and easily develops into an epidemic, children with short and weak viral immunity are susceptible to re-infection.
Bacteria that cause inflammation of the respiratory tract: Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcal, Moraxella.catarrhalis, sphococcal, schiococcal …
Nons specific bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae account for 20-30% of the causes of respiratory inflammation in children, which can account for 40% in > 5 years old.
2. Favorable conditions for child-level respiratory infections
- Premature babies,malnourished babies, foster children.
- young < 2 tháng
- Children with congenital diseases
- Cold weather, seasonal shift.
- Smog, tobacco, respiratory anomalies
- Animal hair
- Un sanitation environment
Clinical manifestations of acute respiratory infections include:
- Cough: common symptoms, dry cough, phlegmatic cough, cough.
- Fever: mild, medium or very high. Newborns can lower the temperature.
- Runny nose, sore throat, hoarseness, may resemble a cold.
- Difficulty wheezing, hissing, recesses of the chest, rapid breathing.
- Purulent discharge of the ears.
- The most dangerous signs are: Breastfeeding, vomiting, convulsions, seizures, slow breathing or apnea.
3. Development of acute respiratory infections
Acute respiratory infections in children caused by viruses usually have a positive pro prostration, with the exception of some severe cases such as acute purulentinflammation , Adenovirus pneumonia in young children can die. Most antibiotics are not required, except in cases of bacterial infections.
Bacterial respiratory infections: Mostare dangerous and antibiotics are required. Especially yellow capacitor pneumonia, inflammation of the bronchial cap caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
- Drug-resistant pneumococcal pneumonia, long duration of treatment, or combination of otitis media, some common antibiotics are fruitless.
Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia is also often associated with rhinotitis, otitis,conjunctivitis…
Upper respiratory infections:
- Rhinotracheitis: if treatment does not help, prolonged prone to acute otitis, sinusitis. Rhinotitis is also the cause of asthma symptoms in patients with asthma.
- Rhinotitis can also cause acute bronchiolitis, dermatitis, viral pneumonia.
- Pharyngitis – Purulent tonsils can cause soft tissue anesthology around Amydal, sinusitis, otitis otitis, purulent meningitis.
- Sysentary pharyngitis β group hemolysis (A) can cause acute aphritis, acute rheumatism, rheumatism …
Lower respiratory infections
- Severe pneumonia if not handled, treated in a timely manner, can stop breathing and lead to death.
- Acute respiratory infections go from mild to severe very quickly. Proper diagnosis and timely treatment can be completely cured. Improper and un timely treatment will affect the health of the child,
4. Measures to prevent child-level respiratory infections
Young children have poor resistance, the immune system is inadequate, incomplete, so they are susceptible to diseases. Therefore it is necessary to:
- Isolate your child from sources of infection
- Small nose, wash your nose with NaCl 0.9% warm.
- Clear the airways when there is inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
- Older children hydrate warm saline, drink plenty of water.
- Avoid humid environments, smoke, dust, tobacco …
- Full vaccination of children against influenza, measles, whooping cough, pneumococcal, Haemophilus influenza …
As soon as the child shows signs of respiratory infection, parents should take the child to medical facilities for timely diagnosis and treatment. To register for examination and treatment at Share99 International Health Hub, you can contact the Hotline of Share99 Health System nationwide, or register for an online examination HERE.
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