Antibiotics are an important tool for the treatment of bacterial infections such as pneumonia and sepsis. However, antibiotics do not work with viral infections such as colds or flu. Using antibiotics with your doctor's prescription will help the treatment process have better results, while not leading to the risk of antibiotic resistance to ensure that antibiotics remain effective in treatment in the future.
Antibiotics are used to treat or prevent certain types of bacterial infections. Antibiotics work by killing bacteria or preventing them from spreading, but they can also be inactive for all diseases. Many mild bacterial infections will cure themselves without antibiotics.
Antibiotics do not work with viral infections such as colds, flu, and most cough or sore throat symptoms.
Antibiotics are no longer used regularly for the treatment of:
- Chest infections
- Ear infections in children
- Sore throat
The use of antibiotics should consult a doctor whether to take them or not. Abuse and indiscriminate use of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance. And that means that antibiotics will reduce or no longer have therapeutic effects in the future.
2. Types of antibiotics
There are hundreds of different antibiotics, but most of them can be classified into 6 groups:
- Penicillin (such as penicillin and amoxicillin) is widely used to treat a variety of infections including skin infections, bending infections and urinary infections.
- Cephalosporins (Cephalexin) are used to treat a wide range of infections. However, some are only effective for treating more serious infections such as blood infections and meningitis.
- Aminoglycosides (such as gentamicin and tobramycin) tend to be used only in hospitals for the treatment of diseases such as blood infections. Since they can cause serious side effects including hearing loss, kidney damage. They are usually used by injection, but can be used as a small drug for some patients with ear or eye infections.
- Tetracycline (such as Tetracycline and doxycycline) can be used to treat a wide range of infections. But, often used to treat acne and some skin diseases including red caviar.
- Macrolides (such as erythromycin and clarithromycin) can be especially useful to treat lung and chest infections or as a substitute for people with penicillin allergies or for the treatment of penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria.
- Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) are broad-spectrum antibiotics that have been used to treat a wide range of infections, especially respiratory and urinary tract infections. These antibiotics are no longer used regularly because of the risk of serious side effects.
3. Side effects of antibiotics
As with any drug, antibiotics can also cause side effects. In case of proper use of antibiotics will not cause problems and serious side effects are rare.
Common side effects of antibiotics include:
- Feeling sick
- Feeling tired
- Symptoms of bloating and ingestion
Some serious side effects when using antibiotics
- Severe diarrhea can be fatal: Antibiotic use increases the risk of intestinal infections caused by clostridium difficile bacteria (commonly known as C.diff). When using intestinal bacterial antibiotics can be destroyed. At this time diarrhea will become serious and can sometimes be fatal (the cause may be C.diff bacteria). If you are taking antibiotics and have diarrhea, you need to see a doctor for a timely solution. Or even if antibiotics have been discontinued a few weeks earlier and have symptoms of unmancified diarrhea, support from doctors and healthcare workers is required.
- Antibiotic resistance: The use of antibiotics may be to increase the risk of bacteria becoming resistant. Antibiotic-resistant infections can be very serious and difficult to treat.
- Allergic reactions to antibiotics. Some people are allergic to antibiotics especially penicillin and cephalosporins. Although these cases are extremely rare, when it occurs it can lead to severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock).
Antibiotics are a specific drug that is used mostly in cases of infection. Therefore, effective use of antibiotics needs to be chosen by a doctor. In addition, if taking oral antibiotics that are as effective as injectable antibiotics should prioritize oral use because it is both easy to use and less accidental.
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Article reference source: cdc.gov, clevelandclinic.org, nhs.uk
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