Proper nutrition is one of the important factors that determine the health of the mother and the comprehensive development of the baby. In particular, for pregnant women with diabetes, a reasonable diet is even more important because when the mother has diabetes, it affects the fetus as much as the baby's bones are very susceptible to fractures and fetal deformity,…
1. What is diabetes mellitus in pregnancy?
Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is a sugar tolerance disorder that occurs during pregnancy. It is estimated that about 5% of pregnant women have gestational diabetes mellitus, which is common in the middle 3 months of pregnancy and lasts about 6 weeks after birth.
Factors that cause gestational diabetes mellitus:
- M med age is greater than or equal to 35.
- Mothers of high-risk ethnic groups with gestational diabetes such as Aboriginal, Hispanic, Asian and African.
- Obese mother with BMI>=25kg/m2
- Mother treats corticosteroids
- Mother diagnosed with pre-diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus in previous pregnancies
- Have parents, siblings with type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Mother has polycystic ovary syndrome or black thorn disease (thickening of the horns and pleated skin pigmentation)
2. Effects of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy on mothers and babies
Gestational diabetes mellitus causes many dangerous complications for both mother and fetus:
- Pregnant women will have real diabetes mellitus or the disease will get worse if they already have diabetes mellitus.
- Causes pre-production, seizures and this risk will increase in later pregnancies.
- Mothers often eat a lot, drink a lot, urinate a lot, in sugary urine and are prone to candidiasis that recurs several times..
- Prone to causing infections, inflammation of the kidneys, inflammation of the renal tank and post-birth blood bandages for pregnant women with diabetes.
- The mother suffered repeated miscarriages in a row or still still-death pregnancies for unknown reasons.
For your child
- Causes congenital malformations in the fetus: Possible malformations such as malformations in the nervous system (infertile pregnancy, vertebral fissure, hydrocephalus), urinary system (renal atrophy, kidney cysts, two urethra), but most commonly cardiovascular malformations such as inter-fibrillation , atrial fissle, island where the blood vessels are large….
- Large pregnancy, which at birth is prone to fractures, it is easy to cause trauma during cesarean section.
- Increases fetal and infant mortality in the first week after birth by 2-5 times.
- Children with respiratory failure, hypothwaymemia, and a very high risk of diabetes mellitus.
3. Diet with gestational diabetes mellitus
Gestational diabetes mellitus is a pathology that causes many dangerous complications for women and fetuses, so during pregnancy, active and safe blood glucose control for mothers is very important. Dietary control is one of the key factors that determine blood glucose stability for pregnant women with diabetes. Notes in the diet for mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus:
- It is recommended to break down meals during the day to avoid excessive blood glucose increase after meals by eating 3 main meals and 1-2 side meals per day but not eating too much carbohydrates at breakfast
- It is recommended to supplement protein-rich foods such as lean meats, lean fish and other foods such as tofu, yaourt, non-fat milk
- It is recommended to choose foods that cause less hypoglycemia, contain slow-converting sugar powder and are high in fiber such as brown rice, germ rice, cereals, beans, greens, fruits, less sweet fruits
- Reduce eating foods that cause hypoglycemia such as confectionery, sweet fruits, ice cream, tea …
- Reduce the intake of processed foods containing a lot of salt such as cold cuts, noodles, porridge, canned foods … for the prevention of hypertension
- Limit the addition of saturated fats, it is recommended to eat foods rich in unsaturated fats such as using sunflower oil or olives for cooking or mixing with salads
- It is not recommended to eat egg yolks, fried foods stir-fried, it is advisable to prepare food instead by baking, steaming or boiling
- Minimize the use of stimulant beverages such as alcohol, beer, coffee, solid tea,…
When having gestational diabetes mellitus, mothers should go to medical facilities to be examined by doctors, advise on diets, exercises, daily activities to strictly control blood glucose levels during pregnancy. For women at higher risk for gestational diabetes, screening for diabetes mellitus from the first pregnancy visit is very important. For pregnant women who have not been diagnosed with diabetes before, they should be screening for diabetes mellitus between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy.
Share99 International Health Hub offers a full maternity care program for women from the very beginning of pregnancy from the first months with a full range of pregnancy examinations, 3D ultrasounds, 4D routines and routine tests to ensure the mother is always healthy and the fetus develops comprehensively. Obstetrics and Gynecology will be consulted and checked under the close supervision of experienced and professional obstetrician, helping mothers have more knowledge to protect their health during pregnancy as well as minimize complications affecting mothers and children.
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Article reference source: Pasteur Institute
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