The article was consulted professionally by Specialist Doctor II Nguyen Thi Phuong Loan – Obstetrician and Gynecologist – Obstetrics and Gynecology Department – Share99 Hai Phong International Health Hub
Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy is a frequent condition that occurs during pregnancy that significantly affects the health of the mother and baby if not treated promptly and properly.
1. What is allergic rhinitis during pregnancy?
- Pregnant women have symptoms of nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, internal runny nose, itchy nose during pregnancy, this condition is called gestational allergic rhinitis. The disease manifests it with constant nasal congestion, accompanied by liquid or viscous nasal discharge. Nasal congestion can lead to oral breathing at night and a decrease in sleep quality that causes hypoxia in the body.
- Pregnancy allergic rhinitis are nasal symptoms during pregnancy, which last 6 or weeks without other signs of respiratory infections and causes of unknown allergies, disappearing completely within two weeks of birth.
- The mechanism that causes allergic rhinitis during pregnancy. During pregnancy, increased oestrogen inhibition of acetylcholin esterase increases the cholinergic response so increases the oily glands that rotate the nasal hair and blood vessels in the nasal mucosa, or worsening can cause congestion and nasal mucosal edema.
- Allergic rhinitis usually persists before pregnancy, there are cases of the first appearance during pregnancy. Pre-existing rhinitis can deteriorate, improve, or change during pregnancy. Common causes of allergic rhinitis include dust mites, mold, pollen, animal hair,…
2. How does allergic rhinitis affect pregnancy?
- Transient pregnancy rhinitis may not directly affect the fetus. Unmanageable allergic rhinitis can indirectly affect the fetus through the quality of sleep, or cause stress, fatigue in the pregnant mother, more severe cases can cause multiple infections that lead to chronic rhinitis, respiratory infections, pharyngitis during pregnancy.
- Persistent, non-definitive non-therapeutic rhinitis can lead to a decrease in oxygen supply in pregnant women during sleep that affects the amount of oxygen provided to the fetus, which in early part can increase the risk of gestational hypertension, pre-cesarean section and pregnancy developmental delays in the uterus, pregnancy failure, miscarriage. Therefore, reasonable treatment of rhinitis during pregnancy can help the woman is extremely important.
3. What medications does allergic rhinitis take during pregnancy?
Pregnant women should exercise extreme caution when taking special medications for allergic rhinitis for the first 3 months.
When there are manifestations of the disease, it is necessary to go to the doctor and take the medicine prescribed by the doctor because the medication needs to be more cautious because the pregnant woman is very sensitive. Improper medication can have unfortunate, dangerous consequences for both mother and child. Daily nasal hygiene is most important for allergic rhinitis, severe cases can take some additional medications as prescribed and the dosage prescribed by the doctor.
Drugs that can be used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis
- Sodium cromolyn is the first drug used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in pregnant women today due to its high safety. Sodium cromolyn is proven safe, not detecting any risk of congenital defects with inhaled sodium chromolyn. The drug in the form of a daily spray, it is necessary to use it regularly, several times a day. This may be a reasonable starting option for many patients. However, in severe cases, prolonged it is necessary to coordinate additional drugs to ensure a quick cure from the disease that does not affect the health of the mother as well as the fetus.
- Nasal spray glucocorticoids: nasal glucocorticoids are highly effective for allergic rhinitis and are considered suitable for use in pregnancy. Pregnant women should use the lowest dose effectively avoiding undesirable effects that occur.
- Antihistamines: Antihistamines are less effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis than nasal glucocorticoids. Several studies have assessed the safety of antihistamines during pregnancy. Second-generation antihistamines are safer because they have fewer sedative effects, fewer side effects than the 1st generation, and should be preferred for the treatment of allergic rhinitis during pregnancy.
- Vascular drugs. Prepared in oral form and spray form. Spray-shaped nasal cones can be used for a short time (for example, three days or less) to temporarily relieve severe nasal congestion. However, patients may be drug dependent if used prolonged. It is especially advisable to avoid the use of oral nasal contraception for the first 3 months of pregnancy because it can cause birth defects to the fetus.
Pregnant women with allergic rhinitis can affect the development of the fetus. Therefore, the mother needs to pay special attention to prevention during this period. The package maternity care program at Share99 is scientifically designed with a routine examination and testing schedule throughout pregnancy to help diagnose and treat early avoid the risks of harm to mothers and babies.
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