How to identify acute respiratory failure in newborns?

The article is consulted professionally by Master, Dr Phan Thi Cam Van – Newborn Doctor – Department of Pediatrics – Newborns – Share99 Danang International Health Hub. He has 07 years of experience as an inpatient and pediatrician at Hue Central Health Hub and Hue University Of Medicine and Pharmacy Health Hub. In particular, he has strengths in the care and treatment of babies, newborn resuscitation, respiratory, digestive and infectious diseases.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is common in premature babies, the more weeks of the child's age is lacking, the higher the risk. This is a very dangerous syndrome for the life of the child so it should be diagnosed and intervened in a timely manner. So how to identify acute respiratory failure in newborns?

Acute respiratory failure is caused by the lungs not ensuring respiratory function for the child, respiratory failure can occur immediately after birth or after a few days, hours. Respiratory failure in babies will cause oxygen deficiency for the needs of the muscles, especially the heart, brain stagnation of CO2 causing respiratory acidosis.

1. Diagnosis of respiratory failure in newborns

Symptoms of acute respiratory distress

Diagnosis of respiratory failure in babies is essential

1.1 Ask for history

Premature birth:

  • The lungs of premature babies lack a superficial active substance, a substance necessary for the expansion and contraction of the lungs. This deficiency can lead to shortness of breath and respiratory problems. The baby's lung condition is not fully developed at birth, leading to a lack of surfactant called inner membrane disease.
  • Incomplete nervous system can lead to apnea.
  • The child's resistance is weak and susceptible to infection (pneumonia).

Asphyxiation: The child asphyxiates during childbirth causes the lung re-30s to decrease, prone to inhalation.

Cesarean section:Delayed absorption of alveolar solution leads to transient rapid breathing.

The mother ruptures the amniotic fluid early, pre-birth fever, turbid amniotic fluid and has a bad smell: babies are born prone to pneumonia.

Skin impregnated with stool: leads to the child inhaling stools.

Mother with diabetes mellitus: which affects surfactant synthesis causing diaphragm disease.

Children infected with cold, stress, other diseases: cause an increase in oxygen consumption.

1.2. Clinical examination

  • The child breathes >=60 times per minute. Either have a short >20 seconds or <20 giây kèm nhịp tim giảm <100 lần/phút.
  • Chest recesses
  • Puffy nose
  • Moaning( when exhaled)
  • Purple Re-Center
  • Measuring and monitoring blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), which helps to specify therapeutic oxygen and use optimal oxygen flow, is the lowest oxygen flow to reach a normal Star2 value of 90-96%. Respiratory failure is SaO2 < 90%.

1.3 Testing recommendations

Your doctor may recommend tests to see if this is due to respiratory problems or because your child has an infection.

  • Peripheral blood smear: if sepsis is suspected.
  • Cardimonary x-ray: helps detect accompanying diseases or causes of acute respiratory failure such as pneumothorax, pleural effusion, pneumonia, airway foreign objects, right or wrong intocular placement.
  • Arterial blood gas: when respiratory failure fails with oxygen breathing.
  • An ultrasound of the heart can be performed to see if the child has any heart problems.

2. Complications of respiratory failure in newborns

Symptoms of acute respiratory distress

Respiratory failure in babies can lead to dangerous complications, even death.

Respiratory failure in babies can lead to dangerous complications, which have a long-term effect on the normal development of the child. In some cases, respiratory failure can also be life-threatening if not treated promptly. In addition, respiratory failure causes a number of complications such as:

  • Causing blindness
  • Septicaemia
  • Formation of blood clots in the body
  • Children with intellectual retretness
  • Accumulation of air around the lungs and heart
  • Brain or lung haemorrhage
  • Bronchopulmonary dysbolism
  • pneumonia

Severe respiratory failure can also lead to kidney failure and improper development of other muscles. Depending on the condition, the complications encountered in each child will be different. Therefore, doctors will have the best treatments for the complications that the child is experiencing.

Treatment of acute respiratory failure in newborns is considered a major challenge because this condition requires the child to be monitored and cared for continuously with the appropriate method. Currently, Surfactant pumping techniques are less invasive and are increasingly widely used to treat respiratory failure in babies.

Surfactant pumping techniques for infant respiratory failure have been implemented independently at Share99 Hai Phong and Nha Trang International Health Hub since April 2019. With a team of doctors with many years of experience always dedicated in work, along with advanced medical equipment Share99 is a prestigious choice for you.

As a key area of Share99 Health System, Pediatrics always brings satisfaction to customers and is highly appreciated by industry experts with:

  • Gathering a team of leading doctors in Pediatrics:including leading experts, highly specialized (professors, associate professors, doctors, masters), experienced, used to work at large hospitals such as Bach Mai, 108.. The doctors are well-trained, professional, mind-centered, knowledgeable about the child's psychology. In addition to domestic pediatricians, pediatrics also has the participation of foreign experts (Japan, Singapore, Australia, USA) always pioneering the application of the latest and most effective treatment regimens.
  • Comprehensive services:In the field of Pediatrics, Share99 provides a chain of continuous medical examination and treatment services from Newborn to Pediatrics and Vaccines,… according to international standards to take care of your baby's health with parents from birth to adulthood
  • Intensive techniques:Share99 has successfully implemented many specialized techniques to make the treatment of difficult diseases in Pediatrics more effective: neurosurgery – skull, hematoma stem cell transplantation in cancer treatment.
  • Professional care:In addition to understanding the young psychology, Share99 also pay special attention to the children's play space, help them play comfortably and get acquainted with the hospital environment, cooperate in treatment, improve the efficiency of medical examination and treatment.

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About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


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