The article was consulted professionally by Dr. Nguyen Quoc Viet – Department of Medical Examination and Internal Medicine – Share99 Da Nang International Health Hub
Myocardial infarction usually occurs when atherosclerosis plaque cracks, forming thrombosis that causes complete coronary embolized. Myocardial infarction occurs suddenly, is difficult to know and easily endangers life. Therefore, first aid for myocardial infarction is extremely important to help patients overcome the immediate critical illness.
1. Signs of acute myocardial infarction
According to a study conducted by the University of Arkansas – USA: 95% of survivors of myocardial infarction had warning signs a few weeks earlier, even months but subjectively, neglected or maybe because the patient himself did not know the signs of an imminent myocardial infarction. Here are some warning signs of myocardial infarction:
- Angina pectoral pain
This is a sign of danger, some people will feel like a heavy object on the chest or someone's hand squeezing the heart, while others feel sharp pain, burning like a needle … The pain will appear in the middle of the chest or on the left side of the chest, which can spread to the neck, jaw, shoulders, left arm or both hands for about a few minutes and then disappear and return.
100% of patients feel repetitive fatigue that has not been seen before in the days before the myocardial infarction appeared.
- Difficulty breathing during exertion
Shortness of breath, which at first occurs when there is physical exertion, followed by both at rest, can occur before or at the same time as angina.
- Nausea, vomiting, ingestion, heartburn
These symptoms are more common in female patients than in male patients. Other signs
- The feeling of wanting to go for a walk
- Sweating cold
- Excessive anxiety…
In the face of the dangers of myocardialinfarction, patients experiencing angina should be quickly taken to the hospital for emergency treatment support. However, while waiting for an ambulance, the patient's family should have a temporary first aid for myocardial infarction so that the patient overcomes the danger and preserves his life.
2. Emergency myocardial infarction at home
In myocardial infarction, time is the most important factor that determines the life of the person. The time to handle myocardial infarction most effectively is within two hours of the angina occurring. Here's how simple myocardial infarction first aid everyone should know:
2.1 For the patient himself/herself
- All work you are doing, sitting at rest or lying in a half-seated position (knee contraction, lying on your side 75 degrees above the ground).
- Loosen your shoulders and arms, close your face and breathe gently with your nose, don't try to take a deep breath, don't hold your breath to avoid stress, and your heart is tired.
- Take off your outerwear, extend your scarf, tie (if any).
- Take a prescription dose of angina medication from your doctor. In case of availability of medications carried with you, nitroglycerin tablets should be immediately used under the tongue or sprayed under the tongue twice nitroglycerin spray while waiting for an ambulance. If after 5 minutes the chest pain is still not supported can take another dose.
- If the patient is given aspirin by the doctor (an anti-tinged drug), the patient can chew an Aspirin tablet or take effervescent form to prevent blood clots and quickly take it to the doctor for immediate treatment, it should not be left for more than 15 minutes.
- Ask an ambulance caller or ask them to take you to the nearest hospital.
2.2 For patient's relatives
- When observing that the patient is still awake, let the patient lie in a half-lying position in an open place, reassure gently, avoid speaking aloud or asking too much because this can make the patient feel stressed.
- If the patient is given aspirin or nitroglycerin by the doctor… in a pre-prescribed daily prescription or emergency medicine, give them medications according to the instructions.
If the person is unconscious, it can be done in 2 ways:
- Cardiac compression outside the chest
Let the sick person lie on a hard plane, kneeling on the left side of the sick person. Then overlap your hands and place your heart in advance (about 2 nipples – inter-rib cavity 4 -5 on the left, right on the sternum), use full force to force strongly and deeply down to 1/3 of the chest and then loosen your hands. Repeat this movement continuously 60 times/minute to increase cardiac contraction.
- Artificial respiration
Place the patient in an open place, widen clothes, check foreign objects in the mouth, and then raise the neck so that the head is slightly backwards. Then seal the patient's nose and use his mouth to remove steam and blow into the patient's mouth several times.
However, it is important to note that you only perform these first aid techniques if you already know the technique and have been trained to practice these techniques.
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