Instructions on how to read the results of a blood test

A blood test is a test performed on a blood sample to measure the content of certain substances in the blood or count different types of blood cells. This is one of the routine tests prescribed by the doctor during medical examination and treatment. It provides important indicators that help diagnose the disease, monitor the progress of the disease and evaluate the course of treatment.

1. How to read the results of a blood test

  • Glu (Glucose): Blood sugar

Normal limit from 4.1-6.1 mmol/l.

If the limit is exceeded, it means an increase or decrease in blood sugar. Rising above the limit are people at high risk for diabetes.

  • SGOT & SGPT: Liver Enzyme Group

Normal limit from 9.0-48.0 with SGOT; 5.0-49.0 with SGPT.

If this limit is exceeded, the detoxification function of liver cells is impaired. Therefore, it is recommended to limit the inection of food and water substances that make the liver difficult to absorb and affect liver function such as animal fats, alcohol and gas drinks.

  • Blood fat group: Cholesterol, triglycerid, hdl-choles, ldl-choles

Normal limit from 3.4-5.4 mmol/l with cholesterol.

Normal limit from 0.4-2.3 mmol/l with triglycerid.

Normal limit from 0.9-2.1 mmol/l with HDL-Choles.

Normal limit from 0.0-2.9 mmol/l with LDL-Choles.

If one of the above factors exceeds the permitted limit, there is a high risk of cardiovascular diseases, blood pressure.

Particularly HDL-Choles is good fat, if high it limits vascular fibrosis.

If cholesterol is too high, accompanied by high blood pressure and high LDL-Choles, then the risk of accidents, strokes due to blood pressure.

  • GGT: Gama globutamin

Is an immune factor for liver cells.

The normal GGT index will be very low in the blood: from 0-53 U/L.

When liver cells have to work excessively, the detoxification capacity of the liver is reduced, GGT will increase to reduce the resistance and immunity of liver cells. Easily leads to hepatic cell failure.

  • Ure (BloodUre)

Normal limit: 2.5 – 7.5 mmol/l, if more than this means that the most important degeneration of proteins released through the kidneys is problematic.

  • BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) = ure (mg) x 28/60 (unit change: mmol/l x 6 = mg/dl)

Increased in: Kidney disease, high protein, fever, infection, obstruction of urine …

Reduced in: eating less protein, severe liver disease, depletion …

BUN: is the nitrogen of ure in the blood.

The normal limit is 4.6 – 23.3 mg/dl, which means Bun = mmol/l x 6 x 28/60 = mmol/l x 2.8 (mg/dl).

  • Cre (Crenin)

This is the eliminated product of muscle creatin phosphate degeneration, the amount of muscle mass dependence, filtered through the kidney – discharged into urine; is also the most stable protein component that does not depend on the diet.

Normal limit: Males from 62 – 120, females from 53 – 100 (units: umol/l).

Increased in : Kidney disease, diabetes, heart failure, isis hypertension,…

Reduced in: pregnancy, maternity…

  • Uric (Uric acid = urat)

As a base purine metabolism product of DNA & RNA, discharged mainly through urine.

Normal limit: Male from 180 – 420, female from 150 – 360 (unit: umol/l).

Increases in:

Original: Due to increased production, due to reduced (sedular) excreted production leading to Lesh Nyhan's disease, Von Gierke..

Second: Due to increased production (myeloma, psoriasis..), due to reduced excretion (renal failure, medication, atherosclerosis..).

Gout disease (ortholysis): Increased uric acid/ blood may be accompanied by tophi nodules in the joints / urat stones in the kidneys.

Decreased in: Wilson's disease, liver cell damage..

  • Immune results

Anti-HBs: Hepatitis B antiviral antibodies in the blood (negative < = 12 mUI/ml).

HbsAg: Hepatitis B virus in the blood (negative).

Instructions on how to read the results of a blood test

Instructions on how to read the results of a blood test
  • The number of leukocytes (WBC) for the average person will result in 3.0 – 10.0 G/L (G/L: cell rate / liter).

If the test gives a score of 40 – 10 Giga / L, then:

Increased in: Malignant blood diseases, inflammation, leukemia.

Decreased in: Anemia due to estates, vitamin B12 deficiency, bacterial infections, …

  • Red blood cells (RBC) quantity

The normal state in males is 4.2 – 6.0 Tera/L and females are 3.8 – 5 Tera/L.If the result is 3.8 – 5.8 Tera/L then:

Increases in dehydration and red blood cells.

Decreased in anemia. Hemolysis Hb)

The index is normal if the male is 130 – 170 grams / L and female: 120 – 150 grams / L.

If the Hb result is 12-16.5 g / dL then the meaning of this hematological index is:

Increased in dehydration, heart disease and lung disease.

Decreased in anemia, bleeding, reactions that cause hematoma.

  • Red blood cells (HCT)

The normal index in men is 38 – 49% and females are 34.9-44.5%.

If this index in males is 39-49% and females are 33-43%, then this condition sufferes from:

Increased in due to allergic disorders, high smoking, increased red blood cells, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, blood flow reduction.

Decreased in blood loss, anemia, pregnancy.

  • Average volume of esth red blood cells (MCV)

If the test index is 85-95 fL (1 fL = 10-15 L) then it makes sense:

Increased in vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, liver disease, alcoholism, red blood cells, thyroid failure,…

Decreased in iron deficiency, thalassemia syndrome and other hemoglobin diseases, anemia in chronic diseases, red blood cell anemia, chronic renal failure.

  • Average Red blood cells (MCH)

If the MCH of blood is 26-32 pg (1 pg = 10-12 g) then it means:

Increased in anemia, severe heredate circular emia, the presence of cold a condensation factors.

Decreased in iron deficiency anemia, general anemia, regenerative anemia.

  • Average Red Blood Cells Hb Concentration (MCHC)

If the MCHC is 32-36 g/ dL, then:

Increased in normal chroma, severe genetic circular red blood cells, the presence of cold a condensation factors. Decreased in anemia due to decreased folate or vitamin B12, cirrhosis of the liver, alcoholism.

  • Number of leukocyukocyes in a blood volume (WBC)

Normal value: 4.0 to 10.0G/L.

Increased value: Inflammation, malignant blood diseases, leukemias,…

Decreased value: Decreased production or myeloid failure, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, bacterial infections,…

  • Neut leukocytity

Increased value in acute infections, acute myocardial infarction, stress, cancer, myeloid leukemia,…

Reduced values: Viral infections, decreased production or myeloid failure, immunosuppressants, radiotherapy,…

  • Lymphocytes (LYM)

Normal value: 19- 48% (0.9 – 5.2 G/L).

If the value increases: Chronic infection, tuberculosis, infection with some other viruses,…

If the value decreases: Decreased immunity, HIV/AIDS infection, bone marrow suppression due to chemotherapy chemicals, cancers,…

  • Mono Leukocycyts

Normal value: 3.4 – 9% (0.16 -1 G/L).

Increase: Infected patients of other viral infections, monoline leukemia, in myeloid disorders,…

Decreased in cases of anemia due to myeloid failure, cancers,…

  • Acid-loving polycythemia (EOS)

Normal value: 0- 7% (0- 0.8 G/L).

If this value increases: Infection with parasites, allergies,…

  • Alkaline Polycythemia (BASO)

Normal value: 0 – 1.5% ( 0 – 0.2G/L)

This value increases: In some cases there may be allergies, leukemia or leemia.

  • Number of tingles in a blood volume (PLT)

Tsinglets play a survival role in blood clots, having an average lifespan of 5-9 days.

Normal value: 150–350G/L.

Too low tinglets can cause bleeding.

Too high tinglets will form blood clots, hindering blood vessels that can cause strokes, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, vascular obstruction,…

Increased tinglets: Osteoporosis disorders, immless tinglet disease, fibrosis of the bones, post-bleeding, post-surgical removal of the spleen, inflammatory diseases.

Decreased thromboeukemia: Inhibition or replacement of bone marrow, chemotherapy agents, spleen hypertroenterosis, scattered vascular coacular coaculation, thromboembolytic antibodies, post-blood transfusion hemorrhage, thromboembolysis due to congenial immunity in newborns …

  • Tinglet Distribution (PDW)

Normal value: 6 – 11%.

If increased: Pulmonary K, sickle cell disease, gram-positive sepsis, gram-negative.

If reduced: Due to alcoholism.

  • Average volume of tinglets (MPV)

Normal value: 6.5 – 11fL.

Increased: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, stress, thyroid intoxication …

Decreased: Aphemia due to aphemia, giant red blood cells, cancer chemotherapy, leukemia …

2. Note when testing blood

Read blood test results

If taking blood makes you dizzy during and after the test, tell the testing staff to let them know and can help you feel more comfortable.

The doctor only needs to take a small amount of blood for testing, therefore the patient usually does not feel any discomfort. But some people will feel dizzy during and after the test. If this has ever happened to you, tell the testing staff so they know and can help you feel more comfortable.

After the test, there may be a small bruise where the needle pierces. Bruising can cause pain, but is often harmless and dims after a few days.

Like any wound, infection can develop where the needle pierces. If you encounter this, go to a medical facility for a visit.

In rare cases, the person feels weak while taking a blood test. Tell the testing staff if they feel tired. At this time, you should lie down immediately to avoid fainting.

Share99 International Health Hub is one of the hospitals that not only ensures professional quality with a team of leading doctors, modern technology equipment system but also stands out for comprehensive and professional medical examination, consultation and treatment services; civilized, polite, safe and sterilized medical examination and treatment space. Customers who choose to perform tests here can be assured of the accuracy of the test results.

Customers can directly go to Share99 Health System nationwide for examination or contact the hotline here for assistance.


  • The meaning of indicators in blood tests
  • Does a blood test detect cancer?
  • The meaning of blood and urine tests in the general health check-up package


  • What is normal the number of tinglets in the body?
  • Does a blood type test require fasting?
  • Differentiation between LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


Leave a Comment