The article was consulted professionally by Specialist I Nguyen Dinh Hung – Imaging Doctor – Department of Diagnostic Imaging – Share99 Hai Phong International Health Hub.
And Specialist I Vo Cong Hien – Imaging Doctor – Department of Diagnostic Imaging – Share99 Nha Trang International Health Hub.
Pleural effusion is a common respiratory disorder, which occurs in many different conditions and can be encountered at any age. Pleural effusion is a method that helps diagnose this condition.
1. Learn about pleural effusion
1.1 Pleural anatomy and anatomy
In terms of anatomy, the pleura is two layers of the bar that surround the lungs, including:
- Wall leaves: Is the part that covers the face in the chest, the facial position on the diaphragm, the mediassm structures;
- Organ leaves: Stick to the outer side of the lung cuticling, spleen into the pulmonary lobe slit.
In the pulmonary navel, the organ leaves are turned upside down to form a connection with the city leaves. Between the two pleural membranes is the pleural cavity containing fluid.
Biologically, normally the leaves and organ leaves are almost close together, only a thin layer of water separately helps reduce friction when they slide up each other at the time of lung and chest elasticity. Normally there will be no gas present in the pleural cavity. When we inhale, the volume of the thoracic cavity will increase, the wall leaves follow the thoracic detachment from the organ leaves, creating a negative pressure in the pleural cavity, which has the effect of stretching the lungs. The organ leaves and lung visceral tissue must expand to balance the pressure in the pleural cavity.
1.2 What is pneumothorax?
Pneumothorax is a condition where air enters between the two pleural leaves, flattening the lungs. Air can enter the pleural cavity in 1 of 3 paths:
- Through the airways, alveoli enter the pleura due to the cause of tearing of the organ leaves;
- Through the chest wall, diaphragm, medias center or erm in case of piercing wounds to the chest wall;
- Due to microorganisms in the pleural cavity produce air.
Pneumothorax is classified into 2 types:
- Sy pneumothorax: Not caused by injury or chest wounds;
- Traumatic pneumothorax: Due to injuries, wounds or procedures such as cardiocular resuscitation, pulmonary puncture and biopneumotonic biopneumothorax, intravenous catheter is placed under the blow.
Common symptoms in patients with pleural gas overflow are sudden onset, severe chest pain, shortness of breath, suffocation, possible dry cough. Patients may have a fever. In case of multiple pleural gas spills, patients have severe shortness of breath, presenting with acute respiratory failure (cyanosis, rapid pulse, hypotension, wrestling,…).
Methods of diaphragm effusion include: Clinical examination, X-ray, computer ctectonic, pleural examination,…
2. X-ray method of diagnosing pleural effusion
2.1 What is an X-ray?
X-rays are a type of high-energy radiation. An X-ray machine is a device that emits high-radiation X-ray beams. These X-rays will pass through soft tissues, translation components in the body, obtained images of parts such as the heart, lungs, bones, blood vessels,… Through the recorded image, doctors will rely on it to diagnose the condition for the patient.
Regarding the X-ray procedure: Technicians will ask the patient to sit, lie down or stand depending on the camera. Behind the unit to be captured is the X-ray film. The camera will project X-rays through the body, when X-rays meet the X-ray film will produce the image. The more X-rays that come into the film, the blacker the recording will be. Accordingly, the dense body parts will form a white area, while the hollow or gas-filled body will give a black image. Images of soft tissues such as dense organs or muscles in the body are usually gray. From the image obtained, the doctor will read the X-ray film and make a diagnosis.
2.2 Pneumothorax image on X-ray
Chest x-ray is the technique used to diagnose and assess the degree of pleural gas overflow. X-ray pneumothorax images are: Unruly brightened images of the lungs, the lungs are pressed back, clear organ leaf contours are visible, sometimes shrinking into a lump resembling a tumor in the umbilical region of the lungs, dilated ribs, lowered diaphragm arches, pushing the heart and medias center.
Pleural effusion may be limited if the patient is taken in a lying position, half-lying half-seated, or with little air overflow. In case of not seeing clearly the image of pneumothorax on the X-ray film but still suspected gas spill or less gas spill, it is recommended to specify an X-ray of the patient in a straight chest position and maximum exhalation will clearly detect the image of pneumothorax.
During X-rays, it is necessary to distinguish pneumothorax from large emphysema balloons because if the wrong balloon is stored, it can cause bronchial – pleural fistula. On X-rays, the pleural effusion features the convex organ wall. In contrast, on X-rays, the deposed air balloon has the characteristic of a concave organ bank on the chest wall.
Note: Many cases of pneumothorax require combining X-rays with a computer ct scan to determine the diagnosis.
X-ray is an accurate, simple, easy-to-perform method of diaphragm overflow diagnosis. When x-rays are in place, patients should follow detailed guidance from healthcare workers to achieve accurate diagnostic results.
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