The article was consulted professionally by Master, Dr. Tran Hong Nhat – Interventional Cardiologist – Cardiologist – Share99 Central Park International Health Hub.
Atrium malformations are often referred to as atrial fibrillation, which is a congenital form of heart with the appearance of abnormal openings between the two atrium chambers. Depending on the characteristics of malformations that can affect the health of people with more or less.
1. How does atrial fibrillation defect work?
The normal heart is divided into four cavities, the right and the left two. The heart must transfer blood to the lungs through blood vessels called pulmonary arteries. In the lungs, the blood takes oxygen then returns to the left cavity of the heart through the pulmonary veins, after which the heart pumps blood to the aortic and goes to the rest of the body.
A heart with an atrial fibrillation defect allows blood to flow from the upper left cavity of the heart (left atrium) into the upper right cavity of the heart (right atrium). After that, this mixed blood will be pumped into the lungs.
If the atrial fibrillation defect is large, the amount of blood on the lungs increases, increasing the pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension) and leading to the right cavity of the heart having to over-work. If left uns treated, the right cavity of the heart expands and becomes weakened.
2. Classification of atrial malformations
- Second hole (Secundum). This is the most common type of atrial fissy, the vent located between the atrial septum
- Primum. The defect is located in the lower part of the atrial septum, which often coordinates with other congenital heart problems.
- Venous sinuses (Sinus venosus). This is a rare defect, the hole in the position of the vein poured into the heart chamber
- Coronary sinuses. This rare defect is caused by a missing part of the septum between the coronary sinuses and the atrium.
3. Risk factors for malformations in the atrium
It is difficult to know why congenital heart defects appear or occur with other genetic problems, such as Down syndrome.
Research shows that certain conditions that occur during pregnancy may increase the risk of giving birth to a child with a heart defect, including:
● Infected with rubella (German measles) in the first few months of pregnancy
● Use certain medications, tobacco, alcohol or other addictive substances such as cocaine during pregnancy
● Mother with diabetes or lupus
People with Phenyl ketonuria and who do not follow the appropriate eating plan will be able to have children with heart defects.
4. Symptoms of malformations in the atrium
Many children are born with atrial malformations but have no associated signs or symptoms. In most cases, symptoms begin to appear in their 20s – 30s. There are also cases, signs and symptoms do not occur in the years that follow.
Signs and symptoms of atrial fissy can include: fatigue, shortness of breath, shortness of breath, shallow breathing especially when exertion or edema, stroke.
Major atrial fibrillation malformations if not detected and treated in time can reduce life expectancy due to problems such as arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension or heart failure. Therefore, early detection to correct defects helps prevent the complications they bring.
5. Complications of atrial malformations
A small atrium defect may not cause unusual manifestations. But for larger disabilities can cause a few serious problems such as:
- Arrhythmia: atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmias, it causes the disease to have an unpleasant thrill. In particular, atrial fibrillation facilitates the formation of blood clots in the heart, which then causes complications of embolism
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension: If a large atrial fissive defect is not treated, increasing blood flow to the lungs will increase the pressure in the pulmonary arteries (pulmonary hypertension). Increased early-stage lung pressure may return to normal levels when abnormalities are corrected
- Eisenmenger syndrome: As a late stage of pathology, when the pulmonary pressure is severe, i.m. i.m., the blood flow is diverted from the right atrium to the left atrium.
- Heart failure: The initial stage is right heart failure with symptoms of large liver edema with shortness of breath. At the last stage of pathology is total heart failure
6. Atrium and pregnancy malformations
Most women with atrial fissive defects can still undergo pregnancy without problems.
However, for those with problems such as heart failure, severe arrhythmias, or pulmonary hypertension that may increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, close monitoring is required
In particular, for women with severe pulmonary hypertension or Eisenmenger syndrome, it is not recommended to become pregnant because it can seriously affect life
7. Prevention of malformations in the atrium
There is not yet a specific preventive method for atrium migration, for women who plan to become pregnant, it is recommended to take several solutions to prevent such agents as:
- Perform an immunity test with rubella. If you are not immune, consider vaccinating against rubella, but must be given before pregnancy.
- Proactively monitor for some health problems during pregnancy. Your doctor may recommend adjusting or discontinuing certain medications before you become pregnant.
- Check the history of the pathology of family members. If the family has a history of heart defects or other genetic disorders, consider determining the risk of giving birth to a child with a birth defect before pregnancy.
To protect general cardiovascular health and detect early signs of cardiovascular disease, customers can apply for the Cardiovascular Screening Package – Basic Cardiovascular Examination package of Share99 International Health Hub. The examination package helps to detect cardiovascular problems early through tests and modern imaging methods. The examination package is for all ages, genders and is especially necessary for people with cardiovascular disease risk factors.
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