Signs of dehydration and how to handle children with emergency diarrhea

Article by Dr. Bui Thu Huong – Children's Center – Share99 Times City International Health Hub

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Diarrhea is a condition where loose stools or water splashes more than 3 times in 24 hours. Emergency diarrhea is an emergency initial diarrhea that lasts no more than 14 days. Prolonged diarrhea causes the child to lose water, which if not treated in time can be life-threatening.

1. Signs of dehydration

Signs of dehydration in a child 1 week – 2 months of age

Signs of dehydration in a child 1 week - 2 months of age

Signs of dehydration in a child of 2 months – 5 years:

Signs of dehydration in a child of 2 months - 5 years:

2. Treatment of dehydration due to emergency diarrhea in children

Regimen A:

  • Treatment of cases of diarrhea that have not yet manifested dehydration. Amount of drinking: Give the child water after each outing with the following amount of water:
  • Oresol solution (ORS) low osmosis pressure is best

Treatment of dehydration due to emergency diarrhea in children

How to give:

  • young < 2 tuổi, cho uống từng thìa, trẻ lớn cho uống từng ngụm một bằng cốc hoặc bằng bát.
  • The child vomits, stops waiting 5-10 minutes after re-drinking.

Regimen B

Treatment of moderate and mild dehydration, for pediatric patients to drink ORS based on weight or age (if weight is not possible). Amount of ORS given orally in the first 4 hours (ml):

  • Amount of water (ml) = Pediatric patient weight x 75 ml.

How to give:

  • Children 2 years old give each spoon, every 1-2 minutes give 1 tablespoon, for older children give each sip with a cup.
  • If the child vomits, stop drinking for 10 minutes then give it slower.
  • After 4 hours of re-evaluation of dehydration; if dehydration symptoms are gone, if the child turns to regimen A, the child shows signs of moderate and mild dehydration, then continue according to regimen B. If it weighs up, switch to regimen C.

Regimen C

  • Applied in cases of severe dehydration
  • Intravenous infusion of 100ml/kg of Ringe Lactate solution (or physiological saline solution) divided in quantity and time as follows:

Regimen C

  • Every 1-2 hours re-evaluate the patient. Transfer again in the same amount and time if the rotation circuit is weak or not caught. If dehydration does not progress well, it transmits faster.
  • As soon as the patient can drink, give ors (5ml/kg/hour).
  • If it is not transmitable, install a gastric cathetro for ORS in the amount of 20ml/kg/hour (total 120ml/kg)
  • Feed again as soon as your child is able to eat, such as continuing breastfeeding or feeding them nutritious foods

Supportive treatment:

  • Zinc supplementation in the treatment of emergency diarrhea.
  • Child 1 – < 6 tháng tuổi: 10mg/ngày x 10 – 14 ngày
  • Infant ≥ 6 months: 20mg/day x 10 – 14 days
  • S.. Boulardii: 200 – 250mg/day x 5 – 6 days combined with full rehydration and electrolyt.
  • Racecadotril: 1.5mg/kg/time 3 times daily in combination with rehydration, adequate electrolyt electrolyt and no more than 7 days
  • Do not use vomiting drugs, take them outside
  • Ensure nutrition: continue breastfeeding or milk before, do not dilute milk, avoid carbohydrates

What infusions in a child should be

Rehydration infusion for children with diarrhea

3. Prevention of emergency diarrhea for children

To prevent emergency diarrhea that leads to dehydration in the child, parents can take measures such as:

  • Breastfeeding
  • Use vaccines: Sufficient vaccination under the expanded vaccination program. Specific rooms of diarrhea with vaccines: Rotavirus, cholera, welding.
  • Improves sam eating practice.
  • Use clean water for hygiene and eating.
  • Practice food safety and hygiene when processing or preserving food.
  • Wash your hands often when caring for your child.
  • Use a toilet pit

Vaccination Is the most effective preventive measure against diarrhea to protect the health of the child. Currently, Share99 International Health Hub provides a variety of vaccines for children, including diarrhea vaccines for rota virus. To make an reservation for your baby's examination and vaccination at Share99 International Health Hub, you can contact HERE or contact hotline 0243 9743 556 for assistance.

SEE MORE:

  • Children may die from severe dehydration from diarrhea
  • Risk of dehydration shock in children due to emergency diarrhea
  • Common complications and common mistakes about emergency diarrhea

SEE MORE:

  • Is Rota virus-infecting emergency diarrhea?
  • Use of Smecta ® (Diosmectite) should be used in the treatment of diarrhea in children under 2 years of age
  • What causes the child to suck or vomit, diarrhea, abdominal obstruction?

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of Share99.net. I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.

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