How dangerous pregnancy diabetes is for the fetus

The article was consulted professionally by Specialist Doctor II Nguyen Thi Minh Tuyet – Head of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Share99 Central Park International Health Hub.

Gestational diabetes is a dangerous disease that no pregnant mother wants but can happen to any woman. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that help the fetus to develop. These hormones inadvertently cause some adverse effects on insulin , leading to hormonal disorders and as a result, causing gestational diabetes mellitus.

1. What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a pathology caused by a disorder of blood sugar during pregnancy. This is considered a common disease in pregnant mothers. However, the disease thrives only during pregnancy and will disappear after birth. Research shows that about 2% to 10% of pregnant women have gestational diabetes.

1.1. Why pregnant mothers are more susceptible to gestational diabetes

In the go-to-go period, because of the increased demand for energy, your body requires more sugar. However, the pregnant body can self-regulate the production of more insulin to address increased sugar levels during pregnancy. But in fact, not all mothers are so favorable.

On the other hand, during pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that help the fetus to develop. These hormones inadvertently cause some adverse effects on insulin, leading to hormonal disorders and as a result of causing gestational diabetes mellitus.

1.2. Manifestations of gestational diabetes mellitus

Gestational diabetes mellitus takes place quietly. Usually the pregnant woman does not know she has the disease until a routine pregnancy examination and the doctor gives a gestational diabetes test.


Gestational diabetics often feel thirsty, tired and urinate several times

However, you may recognize a few of the following manifestations of gestational diabetes:

  • Feel frequently thirsty, or wake up in the middle of the night to drink water;
  • Urinate several times a day and the amount of urine is also more than other pregnant women;
  • When scratched, the wound will heal for a long time;
  • Susceptible to fungal infections in the closed area, taking common fungal remedies is ineffective.
  • Signs of weight loss, fatigue, lack of vitality.

1.3. Subjects who need to check their gestational diabetes index

The risk of gestational diabetes mellitus is higher if the pregnant woman has one of the following factors:

  • Pregnancy when she is beyond the age of 30;
  • Family history of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • History of herself having gestational diabetes during her previous pregnancy.
  • Overweight, obesity before and during pregnancy.
  • The previous child weighed more than 4.1 kg.

If your insulin levels and gestational diabetes index are safe, you are not in the gestational diabetes group.

In detail about the development of the fetus week by week, every parent should find out:

2. What is the normal gestational diabetes index?

Normal results of blood glucose in women:

  • Hungry : ≤ 92 mg/dl (5.1 mmol/l)
  • After 1 hour of eating: ≤ 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/l)
  • After 2 hours : ≤ 153 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l)

Gestational diabetes mellitus is diagnosed if there are 2 results that are equal to or above the upper limit

Sugar tolerance disorder in pregnancy if there is a result equal to or greater than the upper limit.

3. How to monitor the gestational diabetes index?

During pregnancy, you need to monitor your blood glucose more often, especially if you are at high risk for the disease.


Blood glucose meter helps control blood glucose index for pregnant mothers at home

With a home gestational diabetes index meter, you can measure your own blood glucose at any time. Depending on the case, the time of each person's blood glucose measurement may vary slightly. Usually, you should try blood glucose at hunger (before meals), after meals from 1-2 hours, before sleep and at any time feel tired or present with hypoth glucose.

In case you notice that the gestational diabetes index has gradually stabilized and reached the treatment target, the frequency of blood glucose testing can be dilated, such as measuring how day or every two days … You should keep in mind the level of blood glucose during pregnancy and also the signs of gestational diabetes mellitus so that it can be handled in a timely manner.

4. How does a high gestational diabetes index have consequences?

Gestational diabetes leads to many dangerous consequences for both mother and baby. If the gestational diabetes index rises too high, the following unfortunate cases may occur:

4.1. For the fetus

  • Babies are born more susceptible to overweight, obesity, respiratory diseases and more susceptible to blood glucose diseases than normal babies;
  • Babies suffer from calcium drops after birth;
  • Risk of fetal malformations.

4.2. For mom

  • The risk of back injuries, fractures and dislocations caused by the fetus is too large;
  • The pre-production rate is 4 times higher than that of the average person;
  • The likelihood of premature birth and cesarean section increases, as the lower body of the baby is too large;
  • Miscarriage, still still death;
  • Post-birth blood bandages.

The above consequences are extremely dangerous for both mother and baby. Therefore, learn how to prevent gestational diabetes right now to avoid unfortunate things happening.

5. How to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus

5.1. Maintain an ideal weight before pregnancy

When deciding to have a baby, try to maintain the weight at an ideal level. Being overweight is not the cause of gestational diabetes, but it is the leading risk factor for the disease. Specifically, people with a BMI greater than 30 are three times more likely to have gestational diabetes than those with a BMI of less than 25.

In addition, weight loss should be carried out before deciding to get pregnant, especially when you are overweight, obese. Losing weight while pregnant is not recommended, because this is not safe for the health of the mother and the process of pregnancy.

5.2. Healthy nutrition

A healthy diet not only reduces the risk of gestational diabetes, but also improves the health of pregnant women during tired goumen days. Try to balance the amount of powdered sugar and the remaining groups of substances so that the blood glucose index does not rise too high after eating.

There is no general menu for all pregnant women. However, there are general principles that you can implement, such as breaking down meals, supplementing foods rich in fiber, using healthy fats, ensuring a balanced nutritional content in the daily diet.

The simplest way to be able to control the amount of food per day, is thanks to advice from nutritionists. From there, you make a meal plan for yourself and strictly follow the plan set out. As such, you will not have to worry about too high a gestational diabetes index and limit the risk of diabetes during pregnancy.

5.3. Increased reasonable movement

Movement is an important factor that helps prevent gestational diabetes. Talk to your obstetrician to establish a mode of movement that best suits each person's health. If possible, you should spend 30 minutes a day on proper exercises such as walking or swimming.


Advocacy helps pregnant mothers improve gestational diabetes index

If you can't exercise every day for 30 minutes, you can break down your workout time about 10 minutes at a time. In addition, other types of exercise such as doing house work, walking stairs are also considered as equally effective as exercise.

Moreover, post-meal movement helps the gestational diabetes index not to rise too high, improve insulin resistance, enhance the toughness, endurance of the body and the functioning of the cardiovascular system. In addition, during exercise, the body will secrete hormones that help you feel comfortable, optimistic and effectively prevent stress.

Besides, do not forget to visit the pregnancy periodically during pregnancy. Because this is the best way for pregnant mothers to control gestational diabetes mellitus and dangerous complications caused by the disease.

In the last 3 months of pregnancy, the health of both mother and baby should be closely monitored and checked, in addition to screening for gestational diabetes, pregnant women need:

  • Know the real signs of labor to get to the hospital in a timely manner, affecting the health of the fetus.
  • Distinguish amniotic fluid and vaginal discharge for timely processing, avoiding premature birth, pregnancy failure, still still death.
  • Special care when bleeding appears in the last 3 months of pregnancy needs urgent emergency to ensure the life of both mother and baby.
  • Monitor the amount of amniotic fluid regularly, continuously.
  • Monitor the weight of the fetus for the last 3 months to assess the development of the baby and the dosage of possible risks at birth.
  • The monitoring team is equally forward, the fetus is retested and needs to be closely monitored by a doctor and given appropriate direction.
  • Distinguish the psychological mound, labor mound and machine pregnancy to get to the hospital in a timely manner.

The full maternity service at Share99 makes the pregnancy process of pregnant women more gentle and safe. During the pregnancy process, pregnant women will be examined by leading doctors in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department with high professional qualifications, experienced, giving advice and directions for the best treatment for the health of both mother and baby.

For more information about packages of maternity services, please contact Share99 Health Hubs and Clinics nationwide.

For direct advice, please click hotline number or register online HERE. In addition, you can register for remote consultation HERE

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  • How to determine gestational diabetes?
  • Suggested menu for pregnant women with gestational diabetes
  • Manifestations of gestational diabetes have almost no obvious manifestations

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


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