Dyslipidemia can lead to a number of dangerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, pancreatitis, stroke, myocardial infarction,… Lifestyle adjustments which include diet changes for people with dyslipidemia play an important role in the effective treatment of the condition.
1. What is dyslipidemia?
Blood lipids are an important component in the body, helping the body to develop normally, healthy. Blood lipids include: LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Blood lipid metabolic disorders are defined when there are one or more of the following disorders: increased total cholesterol in the blood, hyper triglycerideemia, increased LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesrol) or decreased HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol). This phenomenon, if prolonged, can cause atherosclerosis, narrowing blood vessels and is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases.
2. Eating principles for patients with dysle fat disorders
The majority of cases of dyslipidemia are caused by inappropriate nutrition: an excessive diet of animal fat, plenty of cholesterol-containing foods (animal organs, animal fat, total buttermilk, eggs), drinking habits, smoking,…. Therefore, people with dyslipidemia in addition to using the drug also need to have a reasonable diet, combining regular physical exercise to treat the disease positively, effectively.
In the treatment of dyslipidemia, to reduce blood cholesterol, prevent atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, the diet for the person needs to adhere to the following principles:
- Reduce the total energy inge during the day to thereby lose weight according to the body mass index (BMI) if there is overweight or obesity. In some cases of mild lipid metabolic disorders, the disease may stabilize after the patient adopts a weight loss diet. Patients need to reduce the energy in their diet step by step, each week reducing by about 300Kcal compared to the previous servings until the energy corresponding to the BMI is achieved;
- Reduce the amount of fat (lipids) according to BMI: Fat should only account for 15-20% of the total energy provided to the body. The person needs to limit the consumption of saturated fats, it is advisable to instead eat unsaturated fats;
- Ensure the amount of protein accounts for about 12-20% of the total energy, including animal protein and vegetable protein. Increase protein intake by eating low-fat meats and soy-based products because they contain a lot of plant estrogens and isoflavones that reduce the concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the body;
- Using cereals in combination with potatoes, accounting for about 55-60% of the energy servingment. Patients with dyslipidemia should eat brown rice, whole grains to provide more fiber to the body, contributing to the eliminate of end-to-end cholesterol out;
- Eat more vegetables, about 500g / day to provide enough vitamins, minerals and fiber for the body. Patients should use vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease such as foods rich in vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C and selenium,…
- Eat lightly when accompanied by diseases such ashypertension, heart failure,…
- The number of daily meals of patients with dyslegemia should be divided into several meals, at least 5 meals / day, each at least 3 hours apart and it is necessary to ensure 4 main food groups but minimize the amount of fat, while increasing less sweet vegetables and fruits;
- Provide 2 – 2.5 liters of water per day.
3. What should patients with dyslipidemia eat?
In fact, there are many foods that have a reduced blood lipid effect, sometimes helping patients with mild dyslipidemia not to use additional drugs to treat the disease. The following are some foods that patients should take when blood fat is high:
- Raw processed cereals: black bread, coarse rice,…;
- Non-fat milk;
- Lean meat or skinless poultry meat;
- Oilseeds such as chestnuts, peanuts, sesame, pumpkin,… helps provide Omega-3, Omega-6 fatty acids to the body;
- Fatty fish, eat at least 2 times a week;
- Unsaturation vegetable oils: olive oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil,…;
- Garlic: has the effect of increasing HDL-Cholesterol, has the effect of reducing cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol blood and prevents atherosclerosis, preventing the formation of blood clots. However, eating garlic too much can lead to inflammation of the eyelids or conjunctivitis, damage to the gastric mucosa, which leads to gastric ulcer inflammation. Therefore, patients with dyslipidemia with gastric diseases and inflammations in the eyes should not be taken;
- Onion: has a lowering effect on blood cholesterol, improves atherosclerosis reduces the viscosity of the blood similar to aspirin;
- Soybeans: eating 100g of soybeans a day helps reduce blood cholesterol by 20%, especially reducing LDL-cholesterol levels. Soybeans and soybean products such as tofu, soy milk,… are very good for patients with dyslipidemia;
- Cucumber :contains a lot of fiber, improves digestion, increases eliminates and reduces cholesterol absorption;
- Seaweed: contains a lot of iodine and magnesium, which prevents the formation of plaques that deposit cholesterol into vessels. In addition, the laminaria polysaccharide composition found in seaweed can reduce total cholesterol and triglycerides;
- Chili peppers: have a high content of vitamin C, improve the micro-circulation of the body, reduce blood cholesterol levels;
- Cauliflower: has a very high fiber content, rich in vitamins and minerals, especially flavonoids. Flavonoids are a vascular cleanser, capable of destroying cholesterol deposited on the vessel city, preventing tinglet discontinuation, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease;
- Bitter melon: rich in vitamin B1, vitamin C and a variety of minerals, which help reduce blood fat and improve the body's resistance;
- Chickpeassprouts : contain a lot of vitamin C, fiber,… beneficial in the elimination of waste in the body, especially fats, thereby reducing blood cholesterol, reducing the deposition of cholesterol in the arterial city;
- Carrots: rich in beta-carotene and vitamins, fiber, minerals, good for people with coronary artery disease, reduce blood fat and lower blood pressure;
- Fungi: shiitake mushrooms, reishi, carpentry help reduce cholesterol and blood triglycerides;
- Apples: contains a lot of pectin, which helps reduce blood cholesterol levels;
- Kiwi: high content of arginine, helps increase blood circulation, limit the formation of blood clots, reduce the risk of high blood fat, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, myocardial infarction,…
4. What should patients with dyslerdemia abstain from eating?
When caring for patients with dyslipidemia, it is recommended to limit the feeding of the patient to the following foods:
- Animal fat, skin, meat of unfiltered animals, crab bricks, shrimp bricks;
- Whole milk cream;
- Egg yolks, butter, cheese,…;
- Poultry meat has not left the skin;
- Cakes made from egg yolks and saturated fat;
- Limit sugar, bile, should only consume a maximum of 10- 20g / day;
- Covered with animal organs such as liver, kidneys, brain, spleen,…
- High-fat processed foods such as cheese, sausages, cold cuts,…
- Vegetable oils high in saturated fats such as palm oil, coconut oil, almond oil,…
- Available fried foods, fast food, including instant noodles,….
In addition, people with dyslipidemia also need to quit smoking, limit alcohol consumption, avoid nervous tension and have a regular exercise regime,… Active exercise will help to lose weight, reduce blood pressure and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease.
In case the adjustment of diet and activities does not reduce the amount of blood cholesterol, the patient needs to use blood cholesterol lowering drugs prescribed by a doctor. In particular, each person should pay attention to regular medical examinations,check blood fat if there is a high risk of dyslipidemia to prevent the risk of unpredictable complications.
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