The article is consulted professionally by Master, Dr Cao Thanh Tam – Cardiologist – Cardiologist – Share99 Central Park International Health Hub.
People with hypertension have a higher than normal blood pressure index, which is the main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the treatment and prevention of complications of hypertension, the management of the diet plays a very important role. Patients need to build a scientific diet, pay attention to reduce salt, limit foods rich in cholesterol and saturated fats (full fatty acids).
1. How to build a diet for people with high blood pressure?
The general principles for building a diet for people with high blood pressure are as follows:
Limit salt intake < 5g/ngày.
Lose weight, lose energy if there is obesity, the menu has energy <35 kcal/kg/ngày.
Overweight and obese people can calculate energy according to body mass index (BMI):
- BMI from 25 – 29.9 energy inge is 1,500 kcal/day
- BMI of 30-34.9 energy in entered is 1,200 kcal/day
- BMI from 35 – 39.9 energy inge is 1,000 kcal/day
- BMI ≥ 40, the energy introduced is 800 kcal/day.
People with hypertension accompanied by obesity or sugar tolerance disorder (pre-diabetes) need to reduce the amount of calories loaded into the body by not eating foods that contain too much energy.
Foods that are prone to obesity, excess fat in the body will cause the amount of blood cholesterol to rise, accumulating in the walls of the vessels causing atherosclerosis. The increased weight also causes blood pressure to increase, the more weight the body increases, the higher the blood pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to save diet, maintain body weight should not be overweight.
2. People with high blood pressure should pay attention to reduce salt
With salty dishes high in salt, this is a problem that people with high blood pressure pay special attention to, how to minimize the amount of salt consumed.
Table salt has been proven by many studies to play its role in high blood pressure. Studies show that, in countries with a high-salt diet, there is a higher percentage of the population with high blood pressure in countries with a less salt diet. Scientists say that when there is an excess of salt, the amount of water in the blood increases causing high blood pressure; and the high amount of salt deposited in the vessel city makes the vessel city "harder", which is a favorable factor for high blood pressure.
The World Health Organization has issued recommendations to limit the amount of salt introduced into the body to help control blood pressure in people with high blood pressure as follows:
In adults, taking less than 2.3 grams of salt per day (a teaspoon of table salt) will help reduce blood pressure by 2-8 mmHg.
Limiting table salt is especially necessary for people with high blood pressure with heart failure or the elderly.
To avoid the use of foods high in salt, people with high blood pressure should pay attention to check the amount of salt in the food packaging for pre-purchased foods, limit the intake of salty dishes such as onions, braised dishes, cook less salt using spices to replace the salty taste of salt.
People with high blood pressure when adopting a low-salt diet will have about 20-60% of people reduce blood pressure markedly.
3. Foods that should and should not be with people with high blood pressure
People with high blood pressure need to limit foods high in cholesterol and fatty acids, limit fast food, contain a lot of salt such as shrimp noodles, savory cakes, fried chicken and chips …
Processed foods such as bacon, salted fish, spring rolls, spring rolls, pate, pickles, salted tomatoes, covered with animal organs, animal fat, butter, eggs are also not good for patients with high blood pressure.
Fats from meat and poultry skin are important contributing factors to the cause of atherosclerosis leading to high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke. Instead, patients should use dishes made from fish and seafood to get more unsaturated fatty acids, omegas, beneficial minerals.
Experiments have shown sugar is also the cause of high blood pressure. Therefore, not only people with diabetes but also people with high blood pressure also need to minimize the amount of sugar loaded into the body, limit sugar products such as cakes, jams, candy ….
In addition, patients with high blood pressure also need to limit stimulating drinks: alcohol, coffee, tobacco, solid tea … using food and water with sedative effects, hypotension, weeds such as lotus seeds, lotus seeds …
People with high blood pressure should increase the amount of potassium salt in the feed in parallel with taking antitension drugs but it is not recommended to take potassium supplements directly. Fresh vegetables and fruits contain a lot of potassium such as tangerines, bananas, potatoes, pumpkin vegetables, avocados, tomato juices, orange juices, cast iron melons, dates, dried apricots, yogurt … very good for the vessel city. If the person has high blood pressure accompanied by kidney failure, emphysema, less urine, it is not recommended to eat too much potassium-containing food to avoid excess potassium.
In addition, calcium deficiency also affects high blood pressure. Drinking about 250ml of cow's milk or soy milk a day will help replenish calcium deficiency. Vegetables such as vegetables, canes, mushrooms, carpentry, algae … also contains large amounts of calcium. People with high blood pressure should eat iodine-containing marine food such as jellyfish, sea jellyfish, shrimp shrimp, seaweed … to avoid arteriosclerosis.
Greens, vegetables and ripe fruits provide a lot of fiber, potassium, magnesium, vitamin C, A, E, these are good nutrients to blood pressure. A high-fiber meal has shown to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many forms of cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure.
The fiber in addition to the benefits against high blood pressure, they also help to lose weight, helping to detoxify harmful substances in the body out. It is recommended to use enough vegetables and fruits with an average amount of 400 g / person / day, for people with high blood pressure should eat 500g per day along with 100-300g of ripe berries per day.
Nutrition, especially the amount of salt, sugar and harmful fats loaded into the body has a great effect on health and high blood pressure. Therefore, patients and families should follow a scientific diet, good control of blood pressure to prevent dangerous complications.
In addition to the diet, people with Hypertension also need:
- Avoid anxiety, nervous tension, proper relaxation
- Regular exercise: at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week
- Stop smoking and avoid smoke intoxication.
Master – Dr Cao Thanh Tam has many years of experience in diagnosing and treating cardiovascular diseases; Perform cardiac ultrasound through the chest wall in the field of internal medicine and cardiovascular intervention; Perform other non-invasive functional probes in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. He has been a cardiologist at Share99 Central Park International Health Hub since November 2015.
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