The article was consulted professionally by Specialist Doctor II Bui Thi Thu – Obstetrician and Gynecologist – Obstetrics and Gynecology Department – Share99 Hai Phong International Health Hub.
Gestational diabetes is a dangerous path condition in pregnant women who need to receive special care to avoid complications affecting both mother and child.
When diagnosed with diabetes, the woman is prone to mental trauma out of fear, however most gestational diabetes disappears after birth, but there are also some cases of post-birth maintenance and becoming real diabetes.
1. What is gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes is a disorder of glucose tolerance to any degree encountered during a woman's pregnancy. This is a disease of diabetes and exists only during pregnancy and self-healing after birth. If after 6 weeks after birth the diabetes persists, it is not diagnosed as gestational diabetes anymore but in the bodies of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the most certain diagnosis of gestational diabetes is the diagnosis of resuscitation at the time of 6 weeks after birth.
2. How does gestational diabetes affect?
Having diabetes during pregnancy can lead to very serious consequences for both mother and fetus both before, during and after birth.
2.1 For fetuses
- Gestational diabetes is prone to congenital abnormalities. In the last 6 months of pregnancy if the mother has hypertension,the fetus will also have hypertension until birth, the child is not given the same amount of sugar as when it was in the womb leading to an excess of insulin , which causes the baby's blood sugar to be below normal or causes post-childbirth to have diabetes.
- Hypothalemia in a child is very likely to lead to brain neuron damage if not treated in a timely manner.
- Pregnancy of mothers with gestational diabetes also tends to be larger than normal, easily leading to premature birth and the consequences of respiratory diseases, especially respiratory distress syndrome in babies.
2.2 For pregnant women
- Gestational diabetes can lead to obstetric complications in women such as obstetrics and seizures, pre-seizures if blood glucose is not well controlled.
- It is also possible to increase blood ceton levels that are at a disadvantage to the normal development of the fetus.
3. How to care for pregnant women with gestational diabetes?
The three basic factors for good management of a case of gestational diabetes are blood sugar monitoring, nutrition and physical activity.
3.1 Pregnancy care
Blood glucose management:
- It is initially possible to manage gestational diabetes with a healthy diet and regular physical activity.
- Some women need insulin for better blood sugar control but post-birth will no longer need it. Blood sugar management will be safe for both the mother and the fetus.
- Monitoring blood sugar levels regularly to ensure that the indicators are always within the treatment objectives, pregnant women need to go to medical facilities for guidance and understanding of blood sugar figures to help ensure effective treatment and adjust the treatment process in a timely manner.
- Eating during pregnancy should be taken care of, eating properly is an important part of helping to control blood glucose levels but still provides adequate nutrition for fetal development.
- Women with diabetes are encouraged to divide multiple meals during the day and should eat only small amounts at a time to maintain a healthy weight.
- Add some carbohydrate-containing foods in each main and secondary meal (brown rice, germ rice, some legumes,…).
- Wide selection of foods and full of nutrients, rich in calcium, iron and folic acid.
- Eat more fiber and limit foods and drinks high in sugar.
- Eat nuts with a low sugar index.
- The best drink is that during this period boiling water to cool, sweet drinks for dieters are really not as harmless as one thinks, should limit use.
Management of movement during pregnancy:
- Women with gestational diabetes should exercise to a medium level in order to maintain a stable blood sugar level, it is best to consult an obstetrician before having any exercise regime.
- Physical activity will help the body reduce insulin resistance, improve fitness and prepare for childbirth. Physical activity should be maintained as a daily routine that improves total health.
3.2 Post-birth care
- Gestational diabetes usually disappears after birth, women should perform a blood sugar tolerance test at 6 weeks after birth to confirm the diagnosis.
- Without diabetes results, women can maintain the same life as before pregnancy.
- If there is a result of type 1 or 2 diabetes, it is necessary to consult specialists for a new mode of living as well as treatment.
- Mothers with gestational diabetes can still breastfeed completely normally.
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