Essential screening tests every woman should know

Screening tests can point to health problems even before a person has symptoms. One thing to keep in mind is that screening tests should be carried out according to age, family history, self history and other risk factors.

1. Breast cancer

The earlier breast cancer is detected,the more likely the patient is to be cured. Because tumors that are detected at a young age are unlikely to metabolizing through the lymph nodes and survival agencies such as the lungs and brain. Women between the ages of 20 and 30 are recommended by experts to have a breast exam in the general examination program every one to three years. For women with additional risk factors, your doctor will recommend more frequent screening.

Breast cancer screening by mammogram

Mammogram is a low-dose X-ray technique that can find breast tumors before the patient feels the existence of the tumor, although normal results do not eliminate the risk of cancer. Some experts recommend that women in their 40s perform mammograms annually, then dilate once a year between the ages of 50 and 70. For high-risk patients, the doctor will recommend screening with a thicker frequency.

breast cancer

Breast cancer screening by mammogram can be found before the person feels the existence of the tumor

2. Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is not at all difficult to prevent. The cervical is a narrow steering tube connecting the uterus (where the baby is raised) and the vagina (birth line). To screen for cervical cancer, your doctor will combine Pap smear and HPV (Human Papillomavirus) test. Pap smears find abnormal cells of the cervical neck, which can be removed before they become malignant cells.

However, a series of studies later showed that for the traditional PAP method, more than 80% of cells are removed after spreading onto the slide, thus increasing the odds of missing abnormal cells.

In order to improve the quality of diagnosis and update new techniques, since January 2013, Share99 Health Hub has officially introduced the ThinPrep Pap Test for early detection of cervical cancer (CTC) at the hospital. The main cause of cervical cancer is hpv virus, which is usually sexually transmitted.

What to do when the results of cervical cancer screening are abnormal?

Early detection of cervical cancer through ThinPrep Pap Test

Vaccine for cervical cancer

The HPV vaccine can protect women under the age of 26 from multiple strains of HPV. However, the vaccine cannot protect you from all cancer-causing strains of HPV, and not all cases of cervical cancer are derived from HPV, so periodic cervical cancer screening is still essential.

HPV vaccine can be injected when treating glandular inflammation

HPV vaccine aims to prevent cancer-causing HPV strains for women under the age of 26

3. Osteoporosis and fractures

Osteoporosis is a condition where bones are weak and fragile. After menopause, women begin to lose more bone mass, but not only women, men also suffer from osteoporosis. The first symptom is usually pain whether it is a slight fall, a hit or a sudden twist. In the United States, over the age of 50, about half of women and 1 in 4 men suffer fractures as a result of the disease. Fortunately, osteoporosis can be prevented and treated.

Osteoporosis Screening Test

A special X-ray technique called DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) can check bone status and detect osteoporosis before a person breaks a bone, which also helps predict the risk of future fractures. All women over the age of 65 are recommended to take DXA. If women already have a risk factor for osteoporosis, the doctor will recommend an earlier examination.

Osteoporosis Screening Test

Osteoporosis Screening Test (DXA) is a special X-ray technique that predicts the risk of future fractures

4. Skin cancer

There are many types of skincancer , and applying early treatment to all types of skin cancer is effective. The most dangerous type of skin cancer is melanoma, which occurs on the type of cells that give pigmentation to the skin. Some people have a genetic risk factor for this type of cancer, the risk increases when the person is exposed to too much sun. Bottom cell and scab cell cancer are also two common forms of good black cellless cancer.

Skin cancer screening

Be aware of any changes in the stain on the skin, including moles and freckles, check for changes in the shape, size and color of these marks. Patients are advised to check their skin with a dermatologist during a regular general health check-up.

Skin cancer screening

Skin cancer screening should be performed during regular general health check-up

5. High blood pressure

As age increases, the risk of high blood pressure in women also increases, especially for people who are overweight or have unhealthy lifestyle habits. Hypertension can cause life-threatening problems such as myocardial infarction or stroke without any fore indications. Therefore, regular visits with doctors to control blood pressure are survival. Lowering blood pressure levels also prevents long-term dangers such as cardiovascular disease and kidney failure.

High blood pressure screening

Blood pressure consists of two indicators: Sysentary blood pressure is the pressure of blood on the arteries when the heart beats to pump blood, diastenous blood pressure is the blood pressure in the heart when the heart rests between two beats. Normal blood pressure index as classified by the European Society of Cardiologist and Blood Pressure (ESC/ESH) in 2018:

Normal blood pressure is determined when:

  • Sysysysy blood pressure from 90 mmHg to 129 mmHg.
  • Diastenous blood pressure: From 60 mmHg to 84 mmHg.

Sysysy sysysy blood pressure

Sysentary blood pressure is the pressure of blood on the arteries when the heart contracts

Hypertension density according to the European Society of Cardiologist and Blood Pressure (ESC/ESH) in 2018:

  • Optimal blood pressure: Sysysy sy blood pressure < 120 mmHg và huyết áp tâm trương < 80 mmHg.
  • Normal blood pressure: Sysysyteninal blood pressure 120-129 mmHg and/or diasym diasent blood pressure 80-84 mmHg.
  • Normal high blood pressure: Sysysyteninal blood pressure 130-139 mmHg and/or diasym diasent blood pressure 85-89 mmHg.
  • Hypertension level 1: Sysysy blood pressure 140-159 mmHg and/or diasent blood pressure 90-99 mmHg.
  • Hypertension level 2: Sysysytenemia 160-179 mmHg and/or diasymous blood pressure 100-109 mmHg.
  • Hypertension level 3: Sysysytenous blood pressure ≥ 180 mmHg and/or diasysm diasentity ≥ 110 mmHg.
  • Lonely sysentous hypertension: Sysentinal blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and diasysive blood pressure < 90 mmHg.

Blood pressure index, whether high or low, affects the functioning of the body's muscles. Knowing the normal blood pressure index and what causes blood pressure changes to take self-preventive measures is essential, patients should consult a specialist to understand the method and frequency of monitoring blood pressure, as well as risk signs.

6. Blood Fat (Cholesterol)

LDL cholesterol in the blood

High blood fat levels cause blockage of blood arteries leading to risk of myocardial infarction or stroke

High levels of blood fat create plaque that causes blockage of arteries, it is dangerous that plaque quietly accumulates for years without any symptoms, eventually leading to myocardial infarction or stroke. High blood pressure, diabetes and smoking are also causes of plaque development. It is a condition called arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis. Lifestyle changes and medical treatment can reduce the risk of suffering for women.

Blood fat test

Patients are noted to fast for 12 hours before the test, do not eat or drink soft drinks, juices, alcoholic beverages, especially alcohol, beer, coffee … The substances found in food can be converted into glucose, causing incorrect test results, especially those involving cardiovascular, blood fat. Blood fat testing includes quantifying total cholesterol, LDL bad cholesterol, HDL good cholesterol and Triglycerid. The time of starting the check-up periodically and the frequency of the examination will be notified by the doctor depending on the health status of each patient.

7. Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

Diabetes screening to reduce stroke risk

A third of Americans with diabetes have no idea they are victims of the disease. Diabetes can cause heart or kidney disease, stroke, blindness due to complications on the retinal blood vessels and destroy them and other serious problems. Patients can control diabetes with diet, exercise, weight loss and medical treatment, especially when diabetes is detected early.

Diabetes screening

Before taking a diabetes screening blood test, patients need to fast 8 hours in advance. Diabetes tests include current blood glucose and average blood sugar in the previous 3 months(HbA1c),blood glucose tolerance tests. For those who are in the risk group such as having a family history of having diabetes, obesity, … your doctor will prescribe early screening and screening tests at a higher frequency.

8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV is a human-infective immuno-depletion syndrome (AIDS) virus, which is spread through blood and secretion from infected people, such as unsafe sex or dirty needles. Pregnant women with HIV can spread to their children. There are currently no treatments or vaccines for this virus, but early treatment with HIV antiviral drugs can support the immune system fighting the virus.

HIV test

HIV testing for early detection and avoidance of spread
  • HIV testing

HIV may not cause any symptoms for years, the only way to detect HIV is to do a blood test. The U.S. Department of Health recommends screening for adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65. Young adolescents and high-risk older adults should also be tested.

  • Prevention of HIV infection

Most newly infected people test positive for HIV about two months after exposure to the virus. But in rare cases, it can take up to six months for HIV antibodies to develop. Use condoms during sex to avoid HIV infections or other sexually transmitted infections.

9. Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer screening

Colorectal cancer screening by laparoscopy

Colorectal cancer is the second most common fatal cancer after lung cancer. Most colon cancers develop from polyps, which are tumors that grow on the lining of the large intestine. Polyps can be malignant or not, but if it is cancerous, they will metalyse to other parts of the body. Removing polyps early before they develop into cancer can prevent a comprehensive risk.

Colorectal cancer screening

Colonoscopy is a common colorectal cancer screening method, usually performed under anesthesia. When the patient sleeps, the endoscopian will insert a small soft tube with a camera attached to the colon, when polyps are found, the doctor can cut them immediately and always.

10. Glaucoma (glaucoma)

Eye examination

Regular eye exams to prevent and treat a number of eye diseases early

Glaucoma (also known as glaucoma) is an eye disease caused by increased in-eye pressure that damages the visual nerve leading to market loss. If not treated, it can destroy the spines and cause blindness. Often the person has no symptoms until vision is affected.

Glaucoma Screening

The frequency of examination with an Opiation specialist depends on age and risk factors, such as African-Americans or Hispanics, who are over 60 years old, have a history of eye injuries, have used steroid drugs and have a family history with Glaucoma.

11. Consult your doctor about screening tests

Medical examination

Talk to your doctor about screening tests

Some tests such as cervical cancer screening or breast cancer should be done regularly. Some other tests may be necessary based on the risk factors that the person has. Proper screening tests do not always prevent disease, but they can detect the disease early enough for the person to have the best chance of treatment.

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About: John Smith

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&r=gI am the author of I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


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