Essential tests to do from time to time during pregnancy

During pregnancy, in order to closely monitor the health of the mother as well as the development of the fetus, the maternity should perform a regular pregnancy examination as well as safe management of the pregnancy. In addition, the conduct of tests during pregnancy such as HIV testing, hepatitis B tests … plays a very important role.

1. Testing during pregnancy

Tests during pregnancy are extremely important for mothers as well as fetuses because it not only helps to screening for abnormalities for the health of the mother, but also evaluates and monitors the development and abnormalities for the fetus. Test milestones in pregnancy are usually the first 3 months, the middle 3 months and the last 3 months of pregnancy. Although there are many types of tests during pregnancy, it is divided into 2 main types of pre-maternity tests: screening tests and diagnostic tests.

  • Screening tests help to screening and detect the possibility of certain diseases for the fetus.
  • Diagnostic tests contribute to the diagnosis of pathology results

2. Screening tests

2.1 Measurement of nape opacity

Ultrasound concentrated in the fetal nape area can detect abnormalities in the fetal chromochroma such as Down syndrome, congenital heart disease… This test is carried out quite early, usually when the fetus is 11 to 14 weeks old.

2.2 HCG tests

The HCG test was performed to survey the condition of the mother's blood vessels to quant the HCG, thereby detecting a number of multi-pregnancy abnormalities (HCG is too high). The test is carried out when the fetus is between 15 and 16 weeks old. In addition, the HCG test contributes to the screening of fetal malformations, which can then be tested for amniotic puncture to reinforce the diagnosis.

2.3 AFP tests

The AFP test is a blood test conducted when a fetus between the ages of 15 and 16 weeks is aimed at quansing the alpha-fetoprotein of the fetus mixed in the mother's blood. Through testing, abnormalities such as nervous tube defects, headless pregnancies or Down syndrome will be screening.


The AFP test will be able to see abnormalities such as a neurological tube defect, a common pregnancy or Down's syndrome

3. Diagnostic tests

3.1 Pregnancy ultrasound

Fetal ultrasound is the use of high-frequency sound waves to provide images related to the structure and body shape of the fetus to monitor the development of the fetus as well as detect abnormalities. This is a safe method for both mother and baby, and also helps diagnose related diseases. The following are important ultrasound timelines that the woman needs to pay attention to:

  • 2 to 4 weeks delay: ultrasound at this time to determine if the woman is pregnant, and at the same time determine the location of the fetus as located inside or outside the uterus, the number of pregnancies. In addition, ultrasound also helps diagnose the heart of pregnancy, pregnancy is a common pregnancy or egg pregnancy. Diseases such as fibroids, cysts, pregnancies … also surveyed when ultrasound. Ultrasound also helps calculate gestational age and determine the predicted date of birth.
  • Gestational age from 11 to 13 weeks 6 days: ultrasound measures nape skin opacity for Down pathology screening.
  • Gestational age from 20 to 24 weeks: 3D ultrasound, 4D to see fetal form, screening for fetal malformations. Abnormalities found during ultrasound during this period include cleft lip, cleft palate, heart defects, bare feet, hydrocephalus…
  • Gestational age from 30 to 32 weeks: color ultrasound should be conducted to measure indicators of fetal growth. At the same time, it also continues to screen for fetal malformations that have not been found for previous ultrasounds such as brain, heart and kidney surveys of the fetus.

3.2 Amniotic puncture

Amniotic puncture is conducted around the 18th week by taking a sample of amniotic fluid in the uterus of the maternity for testing. Through amniotic puncture, Down syndrome can be detected as well as chroma disorders, especially for women aged 35 and over.

3.3 Film sampling

Conducted at pregnancy from 11 to 13 weeks of age and is similar to amniotic puncture. Membrane sampling is also done to detect chromic abnormalities but is less commonly used than amniotic puncture because the rate of miscarriage when conducting this test is 1%. Therefore, only when the pregnant woman has less amniotic fluid will a sample of the pregnancy membrane be in place.

3.4 Umbilical cord puncture

The test analyzes fetal blood through the navel to assess low oxygen or the fetus has anemia. In addition, this test also helps to survey the unfavorable response of the mother's immune system to the fetus and some diseases such as measles, toxolasma infections, herpes …

4. Other important tests

Blood tests

Blood tests are one of the tests during pregnancy that are carried out very commonly

4.1 Blood tests

Blood tests are one of the tests during pregnancy that are carried out very commonly because through it it is possible to detect if the mother has a viral infection, HIV infection, hepatitis virus or not. Blood tests also identify blood type in order to get blood transfusions in a critical condition. The anemia of the pregnant woman is also manifested by the results of blood tests.

4.2 White blood tests

White blood tests help identify the condition of the mother such as genital infections that cause miscarriage, premature birth, rupture of the amniotic fluid.. From there, there may be a way to treat as well as prevent the infection of the fetus.

4.3 Urine protein testing

This type of test is performed during each pregnancy visit by taking a mid-line urine sample for testing. Urine protein helps somewhat diagnose urinary tract infections, gestational high blood pressure,diabetes mellitus … When a pregnant woman suffers from these conditions, the child is born with malformations such as nervous tube defects, vertebral fisses, malformations in the heart, kidneys, large pregnancies that cause difficult calving, causing the child at birth to suffer respiratory failure, bronchitis.

4.4 Hepatitis B tests, hepatitis C tests

This test is performed to limit the infection of children with the hepatitis virus after birth.

4.5 Tests for gonorrhea and syphilis

If gonorrhea and syphilis are not detected, the child born with this pathology can lead to blindness. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out tests for gonorrhea, syphilis to prevent this condition, and timely treatment with antibiotics for the baby.

4.6 HIV testing

When a mother is infected with the HIV virus, it is likely that 30% of babies born will also be infected with HIV. HIV testing helps to survey the condition early in order to provide appropriate care for the mother as well as prevent the spread to the fetus. HIV testing should be done when the family plans to give birth in order to have appropriate solutions and adjustments to childbirth.

4.7 Down syndrome tests

This test is performed to detect chroma disorders in Down syndrome. If not detected in time, when the child is born there may be manifestations of mental facial damage as well as abnormalities in other bodies.

Chroma chroma

This test is performed to detect chroma disorders in Down syndrome

5. Conclusion

In order to be able to give birth to healthy babies as well as protect the safety of the mother, in addition to the pregnancy examination, it is also necessary to perform tests during pregnancy to screen and detect abnormal changes so that there can be reasonable and timely interventions to prevent unwanted complications for both mother and baby.

At Share99 International Health Hub, there is a full maternity service as a solution to help pregnant mothers feel secure because there is a team of doctors throughout the pregnancy. When choosing a full-service maternity, a pregnant woman can:

  • The process of pregnancy is monitored by a team of specialists
  • Regular examination, early detection of abnormalities
  • Package maternity for the convenience of childbirth
  • Infants receive comprehensive care

For direct advice, please click hotline number or register online HERE. In addition, you can register for remote consultation HERE

Để được bác sĩ gọi điện tư vấn miễn phí về xét nghiệm, hãy để lại thông tin của bạn vào form dưới đây:

Nơi sinh sống

Hà Nội


Hồ Chí Minh

Ho Chi Minh City

Phú Quốc

Phu Quoc

Nha Trang

Nha Trang

Hạ Long

Ha Long

Hải Phòng

Hai Phong

Đà Nẵng

Da Nang

Nước ngoài


  • Genetic screening for pregnant women over 35: What to know
  • [Video] Caring for pregnant women
  • Umbilical cord blood pokes in pre-birth diagnosis

About: Minh Quynh

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&d=identicon&r=gI am the author of I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


Leave a Comment