Possible side effects after stem cell transplantation

The article was consulted professionally by Dr. Le Tan Dat, Radiotherapy Center – Share99 Central Park International Health Hub.

Stem cell transplantation to treat certain types of cancer such as hemamass cancer (multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma) is at risk accompanied by a number of health abnormalities. Side effects after a stem cell transplant may appear immediately after the completion of the transplant or appear late after a long time.

1. Side effects immediately after transplantation

1.1. Sore mouth and throat

Mucositis or mouth sores are short-term side effects that can occur due to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that cause a lot of pain in the oral cavity or throat, so eating is difficult. This condition is usually gradually remission after several weeks of treatment. For people with cancer, a proper nutrition plays a very important role. If sore mouth and sore throat interfere with the patient when eating or swallowing, health care workers will plan support to help manage the patient's symptoms. The post-transplant stage usually has to support intravenous nutrition.

1.2. Nausea and vomiting

During stem cell transplantation, high-dose chemotherapy can cause severe nausea and vomiting, so doctors often prescribe antiemetics in combination with therapeutic chemicals for prevention. The prevention and prevention of vomiting in patients should take place throughout the course of chemotherapy, from the beginning until after the last dose of chemicals 7-10 days. There is no drug capable of controlling nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy reaching 100% effective. Therefore, doctors often take a combination of two or more drugs together. Patients should notify healthcare workers of their nausea or vomiting for changes if the medication they are taking does not come into play.

Cancer treatment with stem cell transplantation

During stem cell transplantation, high-dose chemotherapy can cause severe nausea and vomiting

1.3. be infected

During the first 6 weeks after the transplant, patients are very susceptible to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections. This is when stem cells begin to "grow" back in the bone marrow and create new leukocytes. Lung infection is the most common condition, causing the person to present with fever, cough and severe shortness of breath. Your doctor will take antibiotics to prevent and treat the condition.

It takes 6 months to a year after transplantation for the patient's immune system to function normally. Therefore, during this time the person should be closely monitored, minimize exposure to the risk factor for infection. About 1 week before and the first 2-3 weeks after transplantation, the patient needs to be located in an isolated area with almost absolute erile conditions. Health workers and family members should always wash their hands clean, wear protective equipment when caring for patients, do not bring flowers, fresh food as well as pets near patients.

1.4. Hemorrhage and blood transfusion

The patient's red blood cells and tinglets also recover gradually from a transplant similar to the recovery process of the leukocy cells.

Tinglet cells have the function of helping blood clots. For at least the first 3 weeks after transplantation, low number of thrombolysis makes patients more susceptible to bruising and hemorrhages, such as nosebleeds and gum bleeding.

Before the stem cells begin to stabilize and function normally, the doctor will ask the patient to follow special precautions to avoid injuries and bleeding. If the patient's number of tinglets and red blood cells falls below a certain level, they will be prescribed a tinglet or red blood cell infusion in order to keep these cells at a safe level.

1.5. Lung problems

Pneumonia is very common within the first 100 days after a transplant. Infections or fungal lung infections are also quite common as mentioned above. In addition, lung-related diseases are at risk within 2 years after the patient treats cancer with a stem cell transplant.

Clinical examination, chest x-ray and other tests help detect and diagnose the condition of the lungs. If you feel short of breath or have any respiratory abnormalities, you should immediately report it to your doctor for quick treatment.

Cancer treatment with stem cell transplantation

High doses of chemotherapy or body irradiation can adversely affect patients' lungs

1.6. Anti-master transplant disease

Anti-master ("anti-transplantation") can occur in conformal (or "hetero-foreign" transplants), when the patient receives new stem cells from another donor. The patient's immune system has been virtually destroyed by cancer treatments, so new stem cells will replace this function.

However, this newly reestalished immune system can also attack even the healthy bodies of patients, mainly the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. This impairs the function of the attacked parts and increases the risk of infection.

Since hetero-foreign transplants always require anti-graft drugs, although anti-master transplants are quite common, they usually do not pose a life-threatening risk. Emergency transplant resistance begins immediately after transplantation and lasts for a short time. Chronic transplant resistance begins later and lasts a long time.

1.7. Hepatic vein obstruction

Hepatic vein obstruction is a rather severe symptom, common in the form of a contra-type transplant, older patients with liver problems before transplantation and with acute resistance to transplantation.

Hepatic vein obstruction usually occurs during about 3 weeks of treatment with the manifestation of:

  • Jaundice and eyes
  • Dark urine
  • Pain in the lower part of the right rib (location of the liver)
  • Rapid weight gain, mainly due to abdominal obstruction

Sometimes this condition can lead to liver failure and death.

1.8. Failed transplant

When the patient's body does not accept new stem cells, they do not enter the bone marrow and produce blood cells, which is called a failed transplant. This condition occurs commonly when patients and donors are not suitable for each other or the source of the number of stem cells transplanted is too low.

A failed transplant can lead to severe bleeding and infection. The patient will be treated with a second dose of stem cells in case of availability of sources. Failed transplants rarely occur, but if they appear the person may die.

2. Long-term side effects

The following stem cell transplant side effects that cure cancer depend on many factors, such as:

  • Implant form
  • Treatment regimen
  • Patient Health
  • Patient age when transplanting
  • Time and degree of suppression of the immune system
  • Anti-master grafting status
  • Other drugs used during transplantation

Cancer treatment with stem cell transplantation has the following long-term side effects:

  • Damage to internal organs
  • Recurrence of cancer
  • Second cancer (other cancers that have just appeared after transplantation)
  • Abnormal growth of lymphous tissues
  • Infertility
  • Hormone changes, such as thyroid or still glands
  • Cataracts

The drugs used in transplantation can harm the body's organ, such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, joints and nervous system. Patients should be carefully monitored and actively treated for problems associated with long-term organ damage caused by stem cell transplant therapy.

3. Cancer treatment with stem cell transplantation at Share99 Times City

Cancer treatment with stem cell transplantation

Oncology Department – Share99 Times City is fully invested with high-class and modern equipment

As the first hospital in Vietnam to invest in research and intensive research in the field of stem cell application, Share99 has started receiving and implementing cancer treatment technology with stem cell transplantation since 2015 with many important achievements.

Oncology Department – Share99 Times City is fully equipped with high-end and modern equipment such as: Monitor patient monitoring 7 parameters (with ETCO2, IBP), B40i, Flow Cytometor Navios machine system evaluates the quality of stem cells, special isolation beds for patients with hematoma stem cell transplant. In addition, the team of Associate Professors, Doctors and Doctors here are all well-known people in the industry, with high expertise and experience. As a result, Share99 International Health Hub can treat cancer with stem cell transplantation for cancer patients right in Vietnam at the most reasonable cost.

Currently, Oncology Department of Share99 Times City International Health Hub also cooperates comprehensively in techniques with domestic and international hospitals such as Singapore, Japan and the US to minimize side effects after stem cell transplantation to cure cancer, promote treatment efficiency and improve the quality of life for patients.

Customers can go directly to Share99 Times City for a visit or contact hotline 0243 9743 556 for assistance.

Article reference source: cancer.org


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About: John Smith

b1ffdb54307529964874ff53a5c5de33?s=90&r=gI am the author of Share99.net. I had been working in Vinmec International General Hospital for over 10 years. I dedicate my passion on every post in this site.


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