The article was conducted by Associate Professor, PhD, Dr. Yi Hyeon Gyu – Head of Hematological and Cell Therapy Unit – Hematological and Cell Therapy Unit – Share99 Times City International Health Hub.
Thalassemia is a heredity, it is caused by a genetic mutation or deletion of certain important gene segments. Each form of Thalassemia has different sub-styles. The exact symptoms you have will affect the severity and ability to treat the disease definitively.
Thalassemia is a genetic blood disorder, which means that at least one of your parents must be the one carrying the disease gene. At this time the body produces an abnormal form of hemolysis. Hemoglobin is a protein molecule in oxygen-carrying red blood cells. The disorders lead to the excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Anemia is a condition where your body does not have enough normal healthy red blood cells.
- There are 2 main types of Thalassemia:
- Α (alpha) Thalassemia: Lack of α (alpha).
- β (beta) Thalassemia: Lack of β(beta).
- Both α (alpha) and β (beta) have 3 levels (Clinical) : Mild, intermediate, severe.
The treatment of Thalassemia depends on the type and severity of the associated symptoms. The doctor will give the best treatment regimen for your specific case such as: Blood transfusion; Bone marrow transplantation; Use of drugs and supplements; Surgery is possible to remove the spleen or gallbladder.
Currently the main methods of treating popular Thalassemia are:
1. Treatment of anemia
Patients with signs of anemia apply emia, with Hemoglobin levels of 7g/dl, after 2 tests with no other cause, or >7g/dl with bone deformity. In order to prevent and handle the undesirable effects that may occur due to blood transfusions, the patient needs to be closely monitored at a medical facility with blood transfusions. Patients are admitted to the hospital for blood transfusions on average once a month.
Continuous blood transfusion: Depending on the mild severeness of the disease, the doctor will inform the period of time it is necessary to go for a blood transfusion.
2. Treatment of iron retention
To treat iron retention, your doctor may apply iron discharge with injections or oral medications. When serum ferritin >1000 ng/ml is the time to start iron discharge, usually after infusion about 20 units of chlorolysis.
Iron discharge periodically: The doctor will give medication or injections to discharge iron periodically to reduce complications. You will have to treat iron discharge for life.
Your doctor may instruct you not to take vitamins or supplements containing iron. This is especially true if you need a blood transfusion because iron can accumulate in the tissues, which can be fatal. If you have to have multiple blood transfusions, you may also need iron discharge treatment. This usually involves injecting chemicals associated with iron and other heavy metals, which help to remove more iron from your body.
3. Spleen cutting
Treatment of Thalassemia with spleen removal is only if the blood transfusion is less effective or the spleen is too painful, affecting the patient's life.
4. Hematoma stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant)
Applied to patients with severe illness, is the most advanced method today that can cure the disease. However, this method has a limited side that it is difficult to find people for the right stem cells.
In addition to the two main treatments: blood transfusion and iron discharge, currently, vinmec Times City International Health Hub has successfully implemented and implemented a stem cell transplant method to cure congenital hemolysis. This is a method that helps to treat the patient at the root and end of the disease.
One of the most important conditions for successful transplantation is the conditions of post-transplant care, which require state-of-the-art and modern equipment. In order to avoid the risk of infection immediately after transplantation, the conditions of patient care in the isolation area of Share99 Times City International Health Hub are also strictly carried out: Blood products are irradiated and filtered with leukocytosis, even the patient's food must be uv-irradiated to kill all bacteria. During the post-transplant period, the patient is treated for fungal, bacterial and viral predation, in combination with the maintenance of immunosuppressive drugs.
Since Thalassemia is a genetic disorder, there is no way to prevent it. However, there are many ways you can manage the disease to help prevent complications. In addition to ongoing medical care, people with the disorder protect themselves from infection by vaccinating the following vaccines:
- Haemophilus B influenza
If you have Thalassemia, the prospects of your treatment depend on the type of disease. People with a mild or medium form of Thalassemia can lead normal lives. In severe cases, heart failure is a possibility. Other complications include liver disease, abnormal bone growth, and end end end endal problems.
Customers can directly go to Share99 Health System nationwide for examination or contact the hotline HERE for assistance.
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