One of the common malaria symptoms is repeated high fever accompanied by tremors, the patient's body temperature is at least 38.9 degrees Celsius. This is the first symptom that appears in the sick person, usually about 10-15 days after mosquito bites.
1. What is malaria?
Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and a very serious problem for public health. The disease is caused by protozoa parasites of the genus Plasmodium. When the healer is bitten by anophen mosquitoes, the parasite is transmitted into the blood vessels that cause the disease.
The disease is transmitted by blood. There are 4 methods of transmission including:
- Transmitted by mosquitoes: This is the main method.
- Due to blood transfusions when there is a parasite infection that causes malaria.
- Because the mother transmits the disease to the child when the placenta is damaged (this is rare).
- Injection: This is caused by sharing a blood-stained needle pump with malaria parasites.
2. How long does malaria last?
The incubation period of malaria averages from 9 to 30 days, even lasting up to a year and varies depending on the type of malaria parasite. Accordingly, the typical fever goes through 3 stages: High fever, cold tremor, sweating and the cycle of the fever varies depending on the type of parasite that causes the disease:
- Fever caused by P.falciparum: The fever takes place daily. The nature of the fever is severe, or causes malignant malaria attacks and dies if not treated promptly.
- P.vivax fever: Fever usually occurs daily. That means a fever a day ago.
- Fever caused by P.malariae and P.ovale: Fever is possible in japanese way or fever in 3 days 1 bout.
3. Complications of malaria
People with repeated malaria relapses are very susceptible to liver dysfunction, hepatitis, kidney failure…. Therefore, people with malaria need good treatment and prevention to avoid re-infection, relapse causing dangerous complications.
Complications and consequences of malaria include:
- Liver dysfunction: Patients are weak, or have digestive disorders, cholesterol decreases. Easy nosebleeds, bleeding root teeth….
- Chronic hepatitis: Large liver, sharp shore, firm touch, causing patients fatigue, eating slowly leading to digestive disorders … Laparoscopy or liver biopsy sees images of chronic hepatitis.
- Cirrhosis of the liver progresses after hepatitis together with spleen fibrosis.
- Enlarged spleen: Is a characteristic symptom of malaria. The longer the patient becomes ill and the more large the spleen. When the spleen is enlarged, the ryees are infected with malaria parasites and ryees contain antigens.
- Spleen: People with malaria in the early stages of infection if prevention and treatment are good, when the fever runs out, the spleen can shrink.
- Codulencephritis: Caused by malaria parasite P.falciparum causing embolization.
- Damage to the lungs and acute pulmonary edema. Acute pulmonary edema causes the patient to suffer respiratory failure.
- Children with malaria cause damaged kidney syndrome.
- Edema: Edema on the legs and face, thick abdominal skin, low blood protein … due to the cause of malnutrition.
- Causes anemia: This is a common symptom in patients with malaria. It is caused by malaria parasites destroying red blood cells in the blood. The degree of anemia depends on the number of alysis of parasites and the prolonged duration of the disease.
- Some other complications such as: Lack of folic acid in the blood, hypothalemia, pain and inflammation of nerves …
4. Signs of malaria recognition
The following signs will help you identify you're infected:
4.1 High fever, cold tremor
- One of the common malaria symptoms is repeated high fever, the patient's body temperature is at least 38.9 degrees Celsius. This is the first symptom that appears in the sick person, usually about 10-15 days after mosquito bites.
- Other basic symptoms of malaria are intense tremors and heavy sweating. When the disease becomes severe, the tremor can be so severe that it is almost convulsive.
4.2 Headaches and muscle pain
- The second symptom of malaria is headache accompanied by muscle aches. The extent of the headache lasts from medium to severe depending on the person who is sick.
- Initially, the headache of malaria is quite mild, like a headache caused by stress. But when the parasite has begun to infect and destroy red blood cells, the pain will be more intense, like migraines.
- The accompanying aches and pains, they often appear in the leg muscles and back muscles.
4.3 Vomiting and diarrhea
Other second, nons specific symptoms of malaria are vomiting and diarrhea. These two symptoms usually come together and take place several times a day.
Malaria diarrhea is not too severe and does not bleed. This symptom will fade after a few days.
4.4 Other signs of malaria
- Confusion, repeated seizures, coma and nervous breakdown
- Severe anemia, abnormal bleeding, shortness of breath and respiratory failure
- Renal failure, liver failure, enlarged spleen
- Blood pressure is very low.
5. How to prevent malaria
- When sleeping with a curtain, it is best to sleep curtains laced with mosquito-killing chemicals; wear long clothes when working at night, apply mosquito repellent to open skin places.
- Smoking or burning incense scare away mosquitoes in the evening.
- Clean the house, clean the house neatly; thoroughly the places where mosquitoes perch in the house; clearing bushes around housing; filling stagnant puddles, prison ponds; open sewers, relocate cattle houses away from home.
- Spraying of mosquito repellent: this is an active measure, best for the circulating malaria zone.
- Those who are at high risk are those who live, work, study or enter and enter areas with circulating malaria, they should be given malaria prevention medications as directed and prescribed.
- When malaria is suspected, you need to immediately go to the nearest medical facility for examination and treatment, prevent the spread of the disease to the healer.
For detailed advice on malaria as well as medical examination and treatment process at Share99, please go directly to Vinmec health system or register for an online examination HERE.
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